Wednesday, July 31, 2019

In this chapter the writer uses the setting of the chapter to explain the feeling of all the main characters Essay

In this chapter the writer uses the setting of the chapter to explain the feeling of all the main characters. When we first meet the family they are walking down a road which is all dirty and surrounded by dirt. The nature around them is dying out or rotting. This we can apply to both characters feeling; Micheal feels like his marriage spoiled or ruined his chance of a good life or any fortunes. Whereas Susan feels like she is dying or has died in Micheal’s heart since he is ready to sell her like he would’ve sold a horse in an auction. Hardy uses nature many times in this chapter. At one time when Micheal is auctioning Susan we are told that a sparrow flies in and everyone watches the sparrow till it disappears. This could in fact be showing us Susan’s position. Everyone watches her till she is able to go out of the tent with Newson the sailor. Hardy uses a lot of contrast to show the readers Micheal’s two sides, in this chapter. In the last chapter we saw Micheal in his drunken state which was his dark side. We saw his greed and bad temper. In chapter 2 though we see Micheal when he is sober and when he finds out what he has done. He shows determination in finding his wife and takes responsibility, however even in this chapter we see Micheals bad side when he blames Susan for being simple minded enough to think the auction was binding. Also we see his negative points when he is too proud of himself to tell people why he is searching for his wife. We straight away see that these two sides of Micheals will be a great factor in this book. In this chapter Hardy relives the walk to Weydon-Priors. Only this time the people walking are in a more loving situation. Also there are two women. The women obviously feel love for each other because they are holding each others hands. The fact that they are both wearing black gowns straight away gives us an idea of why these two women have come back this way. Also this is the first time we see Elizabeth- Jane in her grown up state and we see that she is brought up as a very nice girl. Although we see straight away that she is brought up in a rich lifestyle when she tells her mother that the infirmity tent â€Å"isn’t respectable†. At this point e see for the first time that Hardy adds suspence when he decides to bring Susan back to Micheal. The reader wonders why Susan is so determined to meet him. He main question is why ahs Susan never told Elizabeth when she is old enough to know. Casterbridge is described in great detail and because Hardy has a gift for description we can almost see the town come to life. We also find that the town is eager to spread gossip when two women willingly tell Susan about the gossip of the bread and the town. We can see from detailed point that the public will be a very important point in the book. Micheal also reveals his caring point when he tells the towns people that the wheat is not really safe to eat. We also se that Micheal is true to his oath not to drink, when in his meeting he only drinks water. Near the end of the meeting we see the Angry Micheal side when he makes a sharp retort. We see a description of Farfrae and immediately we can tell that he is the total opposite of Henchard. Both in looks and we think in personality. Also through the names of the pubs and inns we can see that maybe Hardy is trying to make a point. When they go to the three mariners then Hardy could be trying to say that they are among the waves of chance. The fact that chance plays a big role in this novel and especially in this chapter. It’s by chance that Farfrae hears about the corn and has the solution or that Elizabeth-Jane notices him and that they all stay at the three mariners. Also the way Michael misses his family by a few minutes on his way to see the man. We can assume that Hardy is proving the powers working against mankind in this chapter. In this chapter we see little irony when Elizabeth-Jane says that they must stay at the fancy inn yet then gets a job as a serving maid which is not too respectable it self. While we can say that Elizabeth-Jane is making sacrifices for her mother, we can still remember that the town’s people have seen Elizabeth serving them and they will remember her face later on. Also in this chapter we pity Michael when we learn that he is lonely and we guess that what he wants is a business partner or a friend. Farfrae is straight away the person that comes to mind. Though again we see a bit of fickleness in Michael’s attitude when he cannot even remember the old mangers name. Farfrae then decides to sing fro the towns people and its by chance that the people are in the mood for his sad songs and Elizabeth-Jane who has been eyeing him, has her heart set on him. When the townspeople talk to Farfrae we know straight away that he has the ability to charm people and when he sings he is charmed them further. We can assume that the reason that the townspeople like the sad songs is because they feel like the story of the song represents them in a way, with their lost ideals. We can even see a bit of this in Micheal himself. Also Elizabeth-Jane misinterprets the songs that Farfrae sings and when her mother says he Elizabeth assumes it’s about Farfrae. These misunderstandings prove to be a problem later on. In the next chapter wee that both Susan and Micheal have to turn towards the younger generation to save themselves. Susan saves her marriage by sending Elizabeth-Jane with the note to Micheal and Micheal saves his business by begging Farfrae to say on as manager. When Elizabeth-Jane takes the walk through the town it creates a time of suspense because it is stalling the meeting between Micheal and Susan and it cuts the conversation between Micheal and Farfrae. Mostly though it shows us just how much power Micheal ahs in his town socially and business wise. Again we see a contrast between Michael’s sides when at first he acts kindly towards Elizabeth-Jane, when he learns who she is. Also when he sends back Susan five guineas we feel that he is almost trying to buy her back since five guineas are how much was paid for her before. Yet we see his cold side again when he coldly turns down Joshua Jopp about his interview and he has created a new enemy at the same time. Later also Micheal explodes on Elizabeth-Jane and cannot even calm himself down. Also in this chapter we see a proud side of Michael when he asks to see Susan in a secret place and will not see her in public incase they might be seen and found out. Slowly we will see this part of his attitude be a big part of his downfall. In the next chapter when Micheal has asked to see Susan in the ring and we get the description of the place it automatically sets a place for something negative to take place. Almost a place where nothing positive can happen. Hardy backs this himself by saying,’ the boys cannot make this a good cricket field’. This ring is maybe meant to show Hardy’s life in a way that Hardy is known for his architecture and his liking to the Greek mythology in a way. The Roundness representing the coliseum and the positiveness being kept away by ghosts of the past like the killed gladiator or the woman who was strangled. This is like a metaphor in a way to their relationship. Micheal will fall in battle and his control is so tight on Susan it might almost be strangling her. The next chapter gives us an idea of our speculation is chapter 3 about another woman in Micheals life. We learn that this woman is infact living in Jersey. We already know that when a person is included in Hardy’s plots he is never easily forgotten so when we hear about this woman we straight away know she will affect the plot. Again this chapter reveals a lot when Micheal reveals to his ‘best friend’ that he is very lonely and would like a friend. We guess straight away that he ahs also made a mistake when he reveals his whole past to someone he has only known for a day. He tells Farfrae everything and doesn’t think of any consequences that could later occur. We see Farfrae first ability in this chapter after he handles his position very well with his new boss. Even though he has plans to eat alone he decides to dine with Micheal and when he is asked about help on how to handle his problem with the lady in Jersey he gives an answer that could start the first sign of discord between the two people. He tells Micheal that he should firstly tell Elizabeth-Jane the truth about her mother and father and he disagrees and gets rather angry. Yet he forgets that it was him who in the first place told him about all his past secrets. In this chapter we finally see Micheal openly court Susan and then propose to her. Even though this should be good new the whole chapter caries ill will which is mostly carried by the townspeople. We can maybe use the nature’s reaction to show out the feelings of Micheal and Susan. When the two enter the church to get married it is raining quite badly and it is very dark almost showing how the two really feel about each other. Hardy uses these nature effects to show the reader how the two feel about each either. By hiding the meaning of the nature effects it almost showing that the two have hidden their feelings about each other. The townspeople also add most of the uneasiness. They don’t actually know the secret about the wedding but they have an idea that something is not right. They immediately feel that Susan is not at the same class as Micheal which is ironic because Michael is the one with the worst background out of the two. In this chapter we know for sure that something about Elizabeth-Jane is being hidden because not only does Micheal keep going on about her hair colour but he starts asking her to change her second name. Also we find out that Micheal maybe getting rather annoyed with Farfrae when he gets angry at little things that Farfrae says. At one time he even dismisses Farfraes opinion by saying â€Å"don’t take too much thought about things.† Also since Elizabeth-Jane has started growing in her new place she starts to bloom a certain beauty. Yet she still remembers her old lifes

Alaskan Airlines †Strategic Choice and Evaluation Essay

Recognizing an organization’s alternatives for growth is an important process for companies. By evaluating and selecting the competitive advantages within a market a company can distinguish themselves from their competition. For an organization the â€Å"grand strategies indicate the time period over which long-range objectives are to be achieved. Thus, a grand strategy can be defined as a comprehensive general approach that guides a firm’s major actions† (Pearce & Robinson, 2011). Alaskan Airlines is a company that is known for their innovations and leadership within in the aviation industry. Alaskan Airlines is easily identifiable because of the smiling Eskimo on the tail of their aircraft. Their leadership and innovations in technology have seen them be the first to sell tickets online and allow customers to check-in and print boarding passes via the Internet. Alaskan Airlines has also innovated technologies to allow for safer air travels in inclement weather conditions. In the aviation market, Alaskan Airlines must focus on how to maintain their status as the air carrier with the next generation technology and low cost airfares. As air carriers compete for the consumer dollar Alaskan Airlines must strategically execute growth strategies. Generic Strategy Alaskan Airlines is known for its high standard of customer service and industry innovation. The company sustains market leadership by leveraging generic strategy. Alaskan Airlines managed the generic strategy in all the three areas, which includes: 1. Low-cost Leadership – Alaska Airlines must be able to offer low-cost through low overhead and high productivity to compete with low-fare competitors. This will enable the company to offer an exceptional quality service at competitive prices compared to the competitors. 2. Differentiation – Alaskan Airlines has remained a leader in the customer service industry by revolutionizing the services offered to the customer. Alaskan Airlines in the only air carrier that offers a Baggage Service Guarantee that states that the customer will receive their bags within 20 minutes of parking at the gate. If the Alaskan Airlines goes over the 20 minutes the customer will receive a 20-dollar discount code for on future flights. 3. Focus – One of the major focuses of Alaskan Airlines is their customer service value and the company uses that to generate success. Alaskan Airlines knew customer service was important to customers and strove to deliver world-class service. The consumers want great customer service, which is safe, and at a competitive price. The accomplishments of Alaskan Airlines are ascribed to strategic plans applied to generate the culture and service offered. The best direction for the grand strategy of Alaskan Airlines is to implement product development and innovation. Alaskan Airlines has established loyal customers based on their quality of service and value. It is a trusted brand that thrives in customer service, safety, and value. The goal of this strategy is to continue the success of the outstanding service and innovations in aviation technologies. Innovation through â€Å"product development involves the substantial modification of existing products or the creation of new but related products that can be marketed to current customers through established channels† (Pearce, 2011, p. 193). Innovation is another grand strategy used throughout Alaskan Airlines. A recent example of Alaskan Airlines implementing this strategy is, in conjunction with the FAA, â€Å"working to implement quieter, more fuel-efficient arrival routes into Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. The routes use satellite-based technology, namely Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Optimized Profile Descent—two key pieces of the FAA’s â€Å"NextGen† air traffic management system† (Alaska Air, 2012, pg. 3). Attaining the long-term business goals for Alaskan Airlines has been focused in increasing the quality of the flying customer experience. Alaskan Airlines consistently strives to provide the best customer experience to the consumer through consumer feedback. Alaska Airlines was the first airlines to use Internet technologies to enhance the customer service experience through their online check-in and ability to print boarding passes. The grand strategy is delivered through a final marketing strategy; Alaskan Airlines currently services over 60 cities and three countries, has a pro-active program in place to reduce emissions from jet engines, an extensive recycling program at facilities and is developing/using technologies to fly more economical routes. Recently Colgan Air decided not fly offer service from Presque to Logan International, PenAir a partner of Alaskan Air decided to provide the service at a $115 round trip. This gives Alaskan Airlines the ability to provide customers with outstanding service while becoming a better global citizen. Recommendation Alaskan Airlines, through the leadership of Brad Tilden, has been able to provide renowned customer service within in the industry and has been a leader in the innovation of technologies that can be used for the betterment of the aviation industry. The recommendation is to follow the current business model of customer service to preserve the customer positive customer experience. Alaskan Airlines should also focus on the environmental portion of the aviation industry by using more Green practices such and wind farms, more robust recycling programs and using more fuel-efficient aircraft and bio-fuel. Alaskan Airlines has very loyal patronage and through the expansion of new routes and more cities, more consumers will be able to experience flying on Alaskan Airlines. Conclusion Alaskan Airlines must build upon an already successful customer service program, continued improvement to the fleet of aircraft and to furthering the technologies used within the aviation industry. References Lynds, J. (2012, Jun 15). Alaskan Airline debuts services in Presque Isle. Bangor Daily News. Retrieved from Pearce, J. A., II, Robinson, R. B. (2011). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Is Recycling Worth the Effort in the 21st Century?

Is Recycling worth the Effort in the 21st Century? Is recycling worth the effort in the 21st century and what is recycling? The definition of recycle given by dictionary is â€Å"to pass again through a series of changes or treatments ; to process (as liquid body waste, glass, or cans) in order to regain material for human use ; to reuse or make (a substance) available for reuse for biological activities through natural processes of biochemical degradation or modification†. Recycling has been around for thousands of years. Not only do people recycle but nature has been recycling plants, trees, insects and creatures for as long as there has been nature. We recycle mostly because it is the smart thing to do for our earth but it also helps save energy, creates jobs and reduces many of our problems with litter and trash. In 1031 Japan was the first country recorded to use waste paper for making new paper. In 1776 America declared its independence from England and they advertised for scrap metals like iron kettles and pots to melt down for their weapons. In 1865 The Salvation Army started in England and they start collecting and recycling unwanted goods of all kinds and they give jobs to the poor and uneducated and then it comes to the United States in the 1890’s. In 1904 the first aluminum can recycling plant opens in Chicago and in Cleveland Ohio and the all aluminum can is introduced in 1964. The value of the aluminum can starts a huge recycling system and for redeeming the used beverage containers. Landfills came about in the 1940's and 1950's when these huge areas became available and they were very popular because of the it was to easy to toss unused products away. No one knew at that time how they would grow and multiply to how they are today. In 1965 the Solid Waste Disposal Act is passed by Congress which recognizes trash as a national issue and to develop programs to state and local governments with disposal programs. In the 1970’s the fist national Earth Day is held on April 22, 1970 and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is created to response to the public’s concern for the environment and waste disposal. In the early 70’s the PET plastic bottle is also introduced and starts replacing many glass bottles but recycling for PET plastic bottles does not start until 1977. It is not until the late 80’s that Rhode Island is the first state to pass a mandatory recycling law for aluminum and tin cans, glass, plastic bottles and newspapers where residents and businesses must separate these items from the regular trash and recycle. As stated by the White House Task Force on Recycling in 1998; Recycling is everybody’s business. From industry to government, from schools to our very own households, America’s commitment to recycling has helped keep our communities clean and our economy strong. Federal agencies are further reducing waste generation, increasing recycling, and increasing purchases of recycled products. Working together, there is even more we can do. Today, we challenge every American to step forward, take action, and contribute to this important national effort. By bringing new partners to the recycling efforts of businesses and families across the nation, we will better protect our natural resources, improve our quality of life, and strengthen our economy. So is recycling worth it? Michael Shapiro, director of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Office of Solid Waste states â€Å"A well-run curbside recycling program can cost anywhere from $50 to more than $150 per ton†¦trash collection and disposal programs, on the other hand, cost anywhere from $70 to more than $200 per ton. This demonstrates that, while there’s still room for improvements, recycling can be cost-effective. † Many people still say it costs more than it is worth. John Tierney wrote in the New York Times Magazine that Recycling is Garbage and stated â€Å"Mandatory recycling programs offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups — politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations — while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Controversy over the benefits of recycling bubbled up in 1996 when columnist John Tierney posited in a New York Times Magazine article that â€Å"recycling is garbage. † http://environment. about. com/od/recycling/a/benefit_vs_cost. htm Officials in some cities claim that curbside recycling programs are cheaper than burying the garbage in a landfill, which can be true in places where the landfill fees are high and the collection costs aren't as exorbitant as in New York. But officials who claim that recycling programs save money often don't fully account for the costs. A lot of programs, especially in the early years, have used funny-money economics to justify recycling,† says Chaz Miller, a contributing editor for Recycling Times, a trade newspaper. â€Å"There's been a messianic zeal that's hurt the cause. The American public loves recycling, but we have to do it efficiently. It should be a business, not a religion. † Recycling programs didn't fare well in a Fed erally financed study conducted by the the Solid Waste Association of North America, a trade association for municipal waste-management officials. The study painstakingly analyzed costs in six communities (Minneapolis; Palm Beach, Fla. Seattle; Scottsdale, Ariz; Sevierville, Tenn. , and Springfield, Mass. ). It found that all but one of the curbside recycling programs, and all the composting operations and waste-to-energy incinerators, increased the cost of waste disposal. (The exception was Seattle's curbside program, which was slightly cheaper — by one-tenth of 1 percent — than putting the garbage in a landfill. ) Studies in European cities have reached similar conclusions. Recycling has been notoriously unprofitable in Germany, whose national program is even less efficient than New York's. We have to recognize that recycling costs money,† says William Franklin, an engineer who has conducted a national study of recycling costs for the not-for-profit group Keep America Beautiful. He estimates that, at today's prices, a curbside recycling program typically adds 15 percent to the costs of waste disposal — and more if communities get too ambitious. Franklin and other researchers have concluded that recycling does at least save energy — the extra fuel burned while picking up recyclables is more than offset by the energy savings from manufacturing less virgin paper, glass and metal. The net result of recycling is lower energy consumption and lower releases of air and water pollutants,† says Richard Denison, a senior scientist at the Environmental Defense Fund, which has calculated the ecological benefits of recycling http://www. nytimes. com/1996/06/30/magazine/recycling-is-garbage. html? pagewanted=7 ————————- When the research firm Franklin Associates examined the issue a decade ago, it found that the value of the materials recovered from curbside recycling was far le ss than the extra costs of collection, transportation, sorting and processing incurred by municipalities. Recycling Often Costs More Than Sending Waste to Landfills Plain and simple, recycling still costs more than landfilling in most locales. This fact, coupled with the revelation that the so-called â€Å"landfill crisis† of the mid-1990s may have been overblown—most of our landfills still have considerable capacity and do not pose health hazards to surrounding communities—means that recycling has not caught on the way some environmentalists were hoping it would. Education, Logistics and Marketing Strategies Can Lower Recycling Costs However, many cities have found ways to recycle economically. They have cut costs by scaling back the frequency of curbside pickups and automating sorting and processing. They’ve also found larger, more lucrative markets for the recyclables, such as developing countries eager to reuse our cast-off items. Increased efforts by green groups to educate the public about the benefits of recycling have also helped. Today, dozens of U. S. cities are diverting upwards of 30 percent of their solid waste streams to recycling. http://environment. about. com/od/recycling/a/must_recycle. htm Recycling Statistics / United States 2 million tons of materials are recycled in the United States.? 53. 4 % of all paper products are being recycled.? There is about 100% increase in the total recycling in the United States during the past decade.? Each person produces 4. 6 lbs. of trash per day in the United States.? In 2005, roughly 8,550 curbside recycling programs existed throughout the United States. 8,875 programs existed in 2003.? United States recycles ab out 32% of its waste today.? An average American produced 800 kilograms of rubbish in the year 2005, compared to only 577 kilograms per person in Western Europe. ttp://www. benefits-of-recycling. com/recyclingstatistics. html http://www. epa. gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf http://www. epa. gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf http://www. epa. gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf Cost Benefit Analysis: http://www. mfe. govt. nz/publications/waste/recycling-cost-benefit-analysis-apr07/recycling-cost-benefit-analysis-apr07. pdf page 11 http://www. epa. gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf Appendix (1)7, Dec. 2010 Bibliography http://www. benefits-of-recycling. com/historyofrecycling. html http://www. benefits-of-recycling. com/recyclingstatistics. html http://www. benefits-of-recycling. com/recyclingprices. htm http://www. epa. gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/recycling; â€Å"History of Recycling†, California Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Waste Management Board, 1997 ***http://www. epa. gov/osw/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt. pdf â€Å"Recycling For The Future† , ,

Monday, July 29, 2019

September 11, 2001 Attacks Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

September 11, 2001 Attacks - Research Paper Example Only after the towers collapsed and news of a similar attack on the Pentagon and an attempt on the White House did the magnitude of the events of September 11, 2001 begin to come into focus. A survey of the damages that would follow would inform of the severity of the September 11 2001 attacks. Those damages would reach beyond the immediate vicinity of the attacks and change our lives in many ways. This research studies analyzes the actual and general damages and consequences of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Actual Damages Al Qaeda’s terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 2001 claimed the lives of almost 3000 persons and caused the area’s economy up to US$83 billion directly and indirectly in losses (Okuyama & Chang, 2011). The damages to New York City were particularly far-reaching since New York City represents the financial center of the US. In addition to property destruction, South Manhattan, is home to New York City’s government and inte rnational commerce. As a result of the attacks, the government and commercial activities were at a complete halt for weeks to come. Office buildings nearby were empty and New York’s subway system came to a complete halt. Thousands of New York residents living beyond Canal Street could not return home. New York’s schools and bridges were closed down (Tucker, 2004). For the entire country and for most of the world, the airline industry suffered the greatest losses. Airports were shut down on September 11 with passengers stranded near and far, putting airlines to the expense of housing passengers. Formal claims by the loved-ones of victims who died in the three crashes resulted in unprecedented insurance and litigation expenses for the airline industry. Airport security also cost the airline industry millions in implementation and administration expenses (Tucker, 2004). With buildings destroyed, transportation interruption and business closures, New York City â€Å"exper ienced massive job losses† (Tucker, 2004, p. 401). The damages to the Pentagon were less extensive but shocking all the same because the attack on the Pentagon symbolized an attack on the US as a whole. On the morning of September 11, 2001, a commercial airline deliberately crashed into the ground floor of the Pentagon claiming the lives of 65 passengers and 125 Pentagon occupants (Bangash, 2006). The ensuing fire caused serious but reparable damages to the building. Engineers have claimed that the strong reinforced columns of the Pentagon mitigated the actual damages (Bangash, 2006). The direct costs of searching for Osama bin Laden and infiltrating terror cells are immeasurable and are costs that will burden the US for years to come (Tucker, 2004). Thus the economic damages directly and indirectly resulting from the September 11, 2001 attacks are difficult to quantify. Thus one of the long lasting consequences of the September 11, 2001 attacks is the realization that economi c loss resulting from traumatic events are not only difficult to quantify but difficult to minimize (Jonkman et al, 2003). General Damages For the purpose of this research study, general damages refer to damages that are not specific and generally not quantifiable in terms of dollars and cents. These kinds of damages are better understood as collateral or consequential damages. It has been established that many persons who survived the attacks and witnessed the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

IKEAs International Strategy and the Establishment of New Stores Research Paper

IKEAs International Strategy and the Establishment of New Stores - Research Paper Example One of the key policies of the IKEA group is that it does not target the rich and instead sells to the smart (Crampton 2008, n.p). The interpretation of this is that it struggles to minimise the prices of its goods as much as possible. This means that the production has also to minimise costs. According to (Bowman 1988, p. 67) this strategy may have two implications; an increase in market share due to the competitive prices or a reduction in market share due to the reduced quality caused by a reduction in production costs. This is illustrated by the quality of the IKEA goods that cannot be described as the best (Thomson 2009, p. 184). The disadvantage is that the customers are not satisfied with the goods. In one case, a customer claimed that he was happy with none of the products from the store (Scholes 2010, p. 5). In the end, the reduction in price may turn out to be a disadvantage as the group loses customers due to poor quality. A large number of firms offering the same services in the market makes it a competitive market. This means that the group has to have competitive prices in accordance with product value if it is to compete successfully (Doyle 2011, p. 258). If IKEA was the only player in the market it could increase prices without value addition. However, due to the market conditions, the company is able to offer cheap and quality goods which is an advantage. A key part of the IKEA’s strategy is to act as the market’s low-cost leader (Jacobsen 2009, p. 144). The idea is to balance low margins with high volumes by driving the prices down.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Youth Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Youth Justice - Essay Example nstructive and more productive members of the society. However, it also must be noted that Youth justice is currently being viewed in different perspectives than it used to be. Many view the current reforms in youth justice due to modernization of the governments and political systems to accommodate the issues like young justice however there is also another dimension to it also as the emergence of private practice into the youth justice have significantly contributed to this issue also. However one also need to consider the fact that these youth justice practices lack the effective quality assurance systems and procedures in place which can ensure that the practice is being done on more professional as well as ethical footings. This essay will argue the role of quality assurance system to be designed to measure the effective practice in youth justice and will attempt to explore the issue from different perspectives so that a balanced view of the same can emerge.... ion must also have been given to this issue so that a positive critic of the same could have helped provide a better understanding of the problems so that quality assurance of the same could have been attained. Youth Justice has been under the complex influences of various forces working within the society which put extra pressures even on the proceedings of the cases against youth therefore the argument has also been put forward to bring in an approach which requires that those who bring children to the legal proceeding should give it a more holistic and comprehensive view so that children who somehow commit crimes are better represented into the legal system within which they are brought in. This therefore requires that those who conduct their practice into the youth justice must make efforts to bring in more quality in their work. (Geraghty). The historical roots of the practice in youth justice are basically founded on two critical principles of justice and welfare appraoch suggesting a approach which demands that a child must be treated differently than an adult criminal thus ensuring equality into the system based on the pecular nature of the status of children within the society. (Stephenson, Giller and Brown) Youth Justice Practice It is believed that the recent emergence of literature on youth based practice and policy has concentrated on the evidence based effective practice. This evidence based practice has now spread almost all the areas of the youth justice and has been considered as an effective and efficient means of dealing with the issue. However one also need to understand the fact that youth based justice practice and the system largely depend upon the society as it has been argued that the society gets the youth justice system which it deserves as

Friday, July 26, 2019

Youve just visited the doctor, and she has given you one week to live Essay

Youve just visited the doctor, and she has given you one week to live. How will you spend your final week on Earth - Essay Example I would begin immediately by visiting the people I know without informing them of my impending doom. I would seek their company for the last time before I begin to retrace my journey across the years and places that helped to shape what I am. A few laughs and some nostalgic conversation is all a man really needs to cheat the thought of impending doom. The next item in the agenda would be to visit the places that helped to fashion both the positivity and negativity inside me. Visiting these places would offer me the opportunity to observe how I have changed over the years as my life progressed. This nostalgic sojourn would also allow me to rediscover myself in new manners that might only be exposed through the juxtaposition of a certain purposelessness and aloofness from material reality. My journey into my past would also present me with the opportunity to recapture and re-experience the sights and sounds that I both cherished and detested. My last week on Earth would more or less be like living life all over again – only fast forwarded into a week’s time

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Management Evolution Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Management Evolution - Research Paper Example One cannot possibly stick to a single strategy and move about using it in all organisations thus it is very necessary to be flexible within the context of managing people. It has been observed that the styles for managing people have evolved and changed within years. In the past a more traditional approach was usually undertaken; however, as extensive changes in technology took place a more flexible approach was adapted toward managing people. Managing people is a very important phenomenon from what I observed within my own studying environment. If teachers do not put in extra effort towards the behavioural approach of the students they do not intend to attain successful results. Teachers who tend to be more dominating whilst not encouraging much of the feedback usually encounter students that are highly pressurized, under stress or carefree students who don’t give importance to their education since their ideas are not given importance to by their teachers. On the other hand those teachers who tend to be more involved with their students also tend to have extremely good results with their students. But then again one more thing that I noticed was that involving students is not necessarily the best way since sometimes student do take advantage of this benefit. Personally what I feel is that it gives the student the impression that the teacher will not really mind if he does not do his homework or submit in his assignment since he/she is extremely friendly thus there is no chance of being punished. This only implies the fact that within our studying environments we do have different teachers with different styles of handling students. I guess the best way is to be involved with students but then in the end the final decision should be that of a teacher. But again I believe that it is not at all necessary that this same tactic is applied in every class at my school. Instead, one should undertake handling approaches using the contingency theory which means handling students in accordance with their behaviour. For example, in a class of non serious students one should use a democratic approach since they need to be shown that there is somebody who does care about them and their ideas. On the other hand in a class where there is a mix of naughty and studious students a teacher should adapt the paternalistic approach which means taking their feedback but in the end the final decision is that of the teacher. Thus, my studying environment, if I observe, is a combination of all leadership styles and I believe this is extremely effective since every class has students with different attitudes and therefore it is very necessary for a teacher to adapt to the class according to the particular culture associated with those students. The approach towards managing people was first laid down by Robert Owen. He laid down the theory for improvement towards human relations. Therefore he was the one who believed in improving the living of works. Charle s Babbage, on the other hand, was the father of modern computing who laid down the theory of specialization which involves giving various tasks to different individuals according to their expertise. Specialization basically implies that a person will feel motivated because he has been given the job he/she is best at. Thus gaining an expertise will allow him to increase the productivity of the organisation. The problem, however, with specialization is that it tends to

Nationalalism identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nationalalism identity - Essay Example The United States of America boasts as sole superpower of the world also identifies their self with all prides of national identity. The British and Western Europeans are not lagging behind in their race for clinching to their national identities. Amongst Europeans the British nation didn't join the single currency rope of Euro in 2000. While French, German, Dutch, Spanish Portuguese, and Italians adamantly claim to be superior primitive European nations in their own way. They never compromise on the labels of their languages and still find themselves proud of their respective languages. Their language is their own medium of education in all sought of manifestations. Exactly same is the case with Japanese as a nation and language. The Spanish, Italian, French and Dutch languages find themselves rich in art, architecture, literature, medicines and technologies. So it cannot be safely said that English language, both British and American versus other Europeans languages are competent at par with each other as a medium of instruction and education in all manners of past, present and future. While coming to Asia and Middle East, the fast developing nations like Malaysians, Koreans, and Chinese are not at all oblivious to the facts mentioned in case

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Diabetes type 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Diabetes type 2 - Assignment Example This paper briefly explains type 2 Diabetics, its, causes, symptoms, consequences and possible treatments. â€Å"Every day, more than 4,000 adults are diagnosed with diabetes and about 200 people die from the disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention† (Payne, 2009). Millions of people across the world are currently suffering from type 2 Diabetics. Many people are unaware that they are at high risk of this disease. National Diabetes Statistics, (2007) shows that in adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and moreover the Total costs of treating type 2 diabetics patients in America is around $174 billion in 2007 which include the direct cost of $116 billion (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007) From the above chart it is clear that most of the type 2 diabetics patients are currently undergoing treatments either in the form of insulin, oral medication or both insulin and oral medications. Obesity, family history of diabetes, lack of physical activities, peculiarities of race/ethnicity etc are some of the major reasons for type 2 diabetics. Even though type 2 diabetics can affect any people irrespective age, culture or ethnicity, African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders are found to be more vulnerable to this disease. National Diabetes Statistics, (2007) has pointed out that type 2 diabetics were earlier mentioned as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetics (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007). Diabetics in general are a group of disease which is resulted from the malfunctioning of insulin production, usage or both. Type 2 diabetics are a disease which occurred when the body resists the effects of insulin produces less insulin than required to maintain the glucose level.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Self-evaluation (Telecommuting will be the new way that jobs are Essay

Self-evaluation (Telecommuting will be the new way that jobs are performed in the next ten years. Introduction ) - Essay Example This can act as detrimental to a section of people are not well educated or skilled to perform any other kind of jobs. (Piskurich, 2008, p.27) Another argument presented by this paper is that telecommuting can provide an employee the added advantage of selecting his/her own working environment and this can have both economic and social benefits. However, there is also a down side because it becomes the responsibility of the employee to pay the bills of electricity and heat of his own working environment and in most companies the employees are not reimbursed for these aspects. (Piskurich, 2008, p.22) The paper puts forward a third argument that telecommuting provides the employee the advantage of working from home. This can help the employee to spend more time with the family thus promoting family values and developing stronger family relations. However, this can be disadvantageous for the supervisors whose primary responsibility is to monitor the efficiency and productivity of their supervisees. The supervisors do not feel comfortable because they cannot physically see their supervisees on daily basis. If the supervision is done badly then telecommuting can further reduce its effectiveness, however it can increase supervision that is done well. There is also the problem of jealousy from colleagues as many people feel that telecommuters do not work in all working hours at home. There may be others who cannot take up telecommuting because of their nature of work. All these can arouse jealousy from colleagues. This working from home facility can have an added disadvantage for thos e companies which regularly face crisis as it causes lack of flexibility. In case of emergency when holding a meeting is required it becomes extremely difficult to bring all the employees together if majority of them work from home. Therefore telecommuting as a way of job is

Monday, July 22, 2019

Education and Life Chances in Modern Education Essay Example for Free

Education and Life Chances in Modern Education Essay Is there such thing as secret of finding meaning in life? That might some what answers me base on certain articles that I just read and as well as the video that amazed me while viewing. This first article defines life and it’s meaning which is â€Å"Meaning in Life [live the life that you want]† by Albert S. Wang, written on November 19, 1997. This article, questions you if you are really contented and happy of what you have and if this is really the life that you wanted. It is said in here that to be able to live a life that you want and to put a meaning on it; you must first know yourself from within because this makes you know of who you are, second is know where you want to go for it gives you direction in finding your happiness. These things are beginning of having a meaningful life. To find the meaning of your life, you must find it with action not just by waiting for it to come and you can also find this meaning in life not just in distant place but mostly it is found near you. Putting a meaning in your life is all about the choices and decisions that you made on where you want to go. Just live your will and you’ll see that each day you will grow in having a meaningful life. The second article that touches me is entitled â€Å"So What Will Matter? † sent by Leandro G. Cruz and shared by Joe Gatuslao of Bacolod City, Philippines. Its original title is A Life That Matters. This article is so inspiring because it stresses that all that you have got starting from yourself just like beauty, fame, wealth and all other things that you have are just in vain because these things are not forever yours, these are just passing things and you cannot bring these things when you leave earth but what really matters are the thing that you made that others will remember you of your goodness, the things that you gave not just in material aspects but in all, living your life with significance, teaching others and set yourself as an example to them. All of these things are living a life that matters. This third article has an unknown author which entitles â€Å"A Purpose†. The article speaks that all of us who are created by God has a unique and significant purpose. Each of us is given a chance to find our designated purposes but you must wait when the right time comes because God has set it for you at a time when you are equipped and ready. Most of the time you’ll experience the roughness of life but don’t be dismayed because there is always a helping hand that will take care of you, which is God who never leaves you. Just stay at the right path and do good deeds for in the end you will find your own way to the pearly white gate. The next article is the one that I liked most which is â€Å"The Journey of Our Life† shared again by Joe Gatuslao from Bacolod City, Philippines. This article actually tells a story about the Emperor who owned a huge land and he told his horseman that if he could ride on his horse and cover as much land area as he likes, then the Emperor would give him the area of land he has covered. The horseman did not stop riding and whipping the horse because he wanted to cover as much area as possible. Came to a point when he had covered a substantial area and he was exhausted and was dying. Then he asked himself, â€Å"Why did I push myself so hard to cover so much land area? Now I am dying and I only need a very small area to bury myself. † This story is really similar with the journey of our life because most of us are always striving for richness, properties, possessions, power etc. So we work harder and harder until we come to realized that all of these things are not necessary for living a happy and meaningful life; we must balance our way of living so that we could not missed something in life that might happen once. The next thing that I am going to share is all about the video clip that I watched; it’s about an old woman at the age of 47 and her name is Susan Boyle who joined in a certain show that searches for extraordinary talents namely Britain’s Got Talent. During her performance, a big shock was made by Susan because at the beginning when she first introduced herself, everybody was against her like they are judging Susan of joining the show where she looks like so ordinary and nothing to show up but when she start on singing all where stunned by her angelic voice and they gave her a standing ovation but most importantly the three big yes from the strict juries. This gives us an insight that we must not judge the person’s appearance because you’ll never know what’s the biggest surprise that comes from within. God created us with equal gifts and we must use this as an inspiration to others. This last article is a prayer entitled as â€Å"Mere Possessions†. It’s all about the prayer of a woman who asked a help from the Lord, asking that she might not put much stock in possessions because things don’t last and you cannot bring all of these things when you leave earth. That we come into the world with nothing, we leave with nothing. Having a meaningful life is about your choices and decisions that were made; just make sure you have chosen the right path because if you do then you’ll end walking along the pearly white gate and that is the fulfillment of having a meaningful life. There is really no such thing as a secret of finding a meaning in life; it’s just you who will make it meaningful by doing what is right and just; live happy and be happy all the time because life is just too short, you might missed something so let’s make the most of it. Public education, it can be argued, shapes society, instils social mores and indoctrinates the impressionable with those philosophies the elites value. This essay will focus upon three main areas intrinsic to the education system. These are the social reproduction of ideas, the life chances created and instilled through education, and the socialisation of the individuals undergoing the educational process. Two main sociological perspectives that are useful when studying the education system are Functionalism and Critical Theory, because they focus on macro issues and social structures more than the interactionist perspective. Functionalists believe that the school system is an agent of social reproduction, which operates to reproduce well integrated, fully functioning members of society (Webb, Schirato and Danaher, 2002: 114). Critical theorists, conversely, hold that education is the most effective mechanism for promoting social change and for giving opportunities to less privileged groups so that they can advance their social standing. However, education usually reproduces existing social divisions, maintaining the relative disadvantage of certain groups (Webb, Schirato and Danaher, 2002: 106). Munro (1994: 108) describes the different approaches by stating that, functionalists tend to see education as synonymous with socialisation, while a conflict theorist is inclined to view education as ideological- that is, reflecting the interests of particular groups. Functionalists hold that the major institution for social reproduction is the education system, whereas, from a critical perspective, teachers, who oversee this reproduction, have been made into administrators of programs that provide manpower capitalisation through planned and directed behavioural changes (Illich, 1973: 327). Illich (1973: 327) comments, from a critical perspective, that teaching and learning remain sacred activities separate and estranged from a fulfilling life. This is because the things being taught do not line up with the necessary knowledge needed for life outside of education, and that learning from programmed information always hides reality behind a screen (Illich, 1973: 324). This means that the knowledge provided is set to a secret agenda. The learning process, which supposedly passes on the values and mores necessary in society to students, is not, however, meeting these needs effectively. Relevant information, that is, knowledge, which will add skills to the labour market, is becoming less practical and more theoretical, expanding the gap between study and work. Regardless of this, employers and social elites have attempted to use the schools for the reproduction of compliant workers (Davis, 1999: 65). This double standard has been discussed in a best selling song, The Wall by Pink Floyd (1978) in which they stated that the reproduction received through the school system was set to a hidden agenda, and that society would be better off without it. Drucker (1973: 236) equates the influx of educated people to the potential for producing wealth in any given country. By stating this, educational socialisation and the development of educated people is the most important function education can have. He goes on to state that while this may be the case today, throughout history, being uneducated provided the wealth of a given nation, due to the class differences, and that education was for the rich and idle while the work was performed by the illiterate. This all changed with the Industrial Revolution, and the invention of moveable type in the 17th Century (Drucker, 1973: 232). The moveable type meant that education could be performed at a reduced rate, and words became a commodity that was necessary for improving the quality of the labour force. Education is purported to provide the best possible life chances for its graduates, yet in reality, in many ways education diminishes these chances. Heinz (1987: 132) points out that the life chances of graduates are in a state of flux, that when the labour market is depressed and work is difficult to find, then young people will opt for more education as a means of delaying their entry into a tight work force. The school then takes on the function of a warehouse; it is a place to mark time. At the same time school acts as a socio-political instrument for reducing social and political conflict, and this function gains predominance over its main function of educating young people. In many cases the academic credentials earned are unnecessary for working-class jobs (Furlong and Cartmel, 1999: 12), which changes the focus of education, making it oppressive and irrelevant (Davis, 1999: 83). Heinz (1987: 131) states secondary school-leavers face a worsening outlook when they want to start in working life, and joining a preparatory program is increasingly becoming the only alternative to unemployment. There are a growing number of young people who are finding it harder to find a place, whose prospects on the labour market are poor, being qualified but underemployed, or drifting between unemployment and occasional jobs (Heinz, 1987: 131). This increases social inequalities and the gap between rich and poor. By acting as a warehouse education is not preparing students for life but rather crippling their life chances. The alternative to this are to reassess the curricula and teaching methods, reintegrating skilled workers into vocational education, ensuring that knowledge will be of direct benefit to graduates in obtaining a place within the work force. There are fewer and fewer opportunities becoming available, and school leavers have to undergo more and more relevant vocational training. However, fewer school-leavers are able to go directly into the vocational training they want. Heinz (1987: 130) noted a growing trend 16 years ago that Depending on the region, only between one-third and one-half of these school leavers succeed in getting a training place, and in 1994 Munro (1994: 109) observed that the school-to-work transition had failed which had major ramifications for everyone involved, causing underemployment of school leavers (Munro, 1994: 116). The seriousness of this trend is made even more apparent by the fact that school-leavers are even ready to enter apprenticeships that lead them into dead-end occupations (Heinz, 1987: 129). Drucker (1973: 232) however, states that while this may be so, to be uneducated is an economic liability and is unproductive, even though education is producing an unemployable, overeducated proletariat. (Drucker, 1973: 233) According to Mehan (1973: 240) education is a major socialisation agency, which moulds the individuals self-concepts into a socially accepted format, allowing each individual to be slotted into a specific function (Sargent, 1994: 240). Sargent (1994: 240) points out that in the function of education values are essentially involved and are taught beside worldly knowledge. However, this knowledge interprets the world, but does not necessarily correspond with any external state (Sargent, 1994: 232). The transmission of knowledge, skills and values, helps to sort and rank individuals, that they might be better placed in the labour market (Munro, 1994: 96). This raises a paradox, however, where education is seen by many as the best possible means of achieving greater equality in society (Sargent, 1994: 233), yet it categorises the graduates into job specifications, personality types and the opportunities granted to each. Sargent (1994: 231) furthers this thought by explaining that the education system is an integral part of determining position and power in our society (Sargent, 1994: 231), and that through education the class structures are compounded, making it more difficult for those in the working classes from advancing in the social hierarchy. The education institution both absorbs and perpetuates the ideology, masquerading as knowledge, which legitimises inequality (Sargent, 1994: 231). Regardless of the inequalities produced, it has become the absolute prerequisite of social and economic development in our world to have a highly educated pool of people ready for the labour market (Drucker, 1973: 232). In conclusion, the failure of the education system to reduce social inequality and produce better workers, raises serious doubts as to its effectiveness. Life chances created through education appear to be diminishing, despite the extension of education. The knowledge taught seems to be ineffective in preparing students to cope with life. Functionalists need to reassess the structure of education, as it loses its ability to effectively provide for graduates, becoming dysfunctional in its goals to remove inequality and give a head start to people entering the work force. When looking at the education system, it is necessary to ask if the cost spent on educating people is being effectively used, considering the increasing number of educated poor. The gap between knowledge taught and life experience needs to be bridged, for education to effectively function. If, as it appears, schools are to socialise and reproduce effective and functioning members of society, the curricula has to be addressed. Bibliography Davis, Nanette J. (1999). Youth Crisis: Growing up in the High Risk Society. Praeger Publications, Westport Drucker, Peter F. (1973). The Educational Revolution, Social Change: Sources, Patterns, and Consequences (2nd ed) Amitai Etzioni and Eva Etzioni-Halevy (Eds). Basic Books Inc. , New York. pp 232 238 Furlong, Andy, and Cartmel, Fred (1997). Young People and Social Change: Individualisation and Risk in Late Modernity. Open University Press, Buckingham Heinz, Walter R. (1987). The Transition from School to Work in Crisis: Coping with Threatening Unemployment, Journal of Adolescent Research (Vol 2). pp 127 141 Illich, Ivan (1973). The Breakdown of Schools: A Problem or a Symptom, Childhood and Socialisation Hans Peter Dreitzel (Ed). Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. , Canada. pp 311 336 Mehan, Hugh (1973). Assessing Childrens School Performance, Childhood and Socialisation Hans Peter Dreitzel (Ed). Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. , Canada. pp 240 264 Munro, Lyle (1994). Education, Society and Change: A Sociological Introduction to Contemporary Australia Brian Furze and Christine Stafford (Eds). Macmillan Education Australia Pty. Ltd. , South Melbourne. pp 96 128 Pink Floyd (1978) The Wall, The Wall. Mushroom Records, California. Sargent, Margaret (1994). Education for equality? employment? emancipation? , The New Sociology for Australians. Longman Cheshire Pty. Ltd. , Melbourne. pp 231 256 Webb, J. , Schirato, T. and Danaher, G. (2002). Bourdieu and Secondary Schools, Understanding Bourdieu pp 105 106 (Reprinted in Sociological Reflections on Everyday Life: GSC 1201 Reader). Allen and Unwin, Sydney. pp 227 238.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Financial Management Of The Tottenham Hotspur Plc Finance Essay

Financial Management Of The Tottenham Hotspur Plc Finance Essay Tottenham Hotspur is one of the famous Football clubs in England; the club had huge fan base reaching 20 million people worldwide and almost 2.1 million in UK, how ever the current stadium capacity is only 36,500 fans. The one Hotspur membership scheme the club created attracted over 70,000 fans. Since one of the revenues sources is attendance, the club starts thinking of expanding or building new stadium to increase the number of fans attending the games. The quality of the strikers are also critical, and usually clubs loses some of their players during the year, therefore need to replace them with better quality if possible and that costly too. The current Enterprise value of the club is 156 million, with Net Debt / EV of 0.12 and revenue of 75 million, in addition to that, the club Goals ( 1998-2007) was -1.9 (December 31, 2007)  [1]   Such situation ranks the club 6 among other clubs. Mr. Daniel the chairman is about to take a very important business decisions which will drive the success of the club in the coming 13 years. The chairman has to decide if the stadium development plans made sense, and how best to proceed in the player acquisition market as well  [2]   It goes without saying that any further investment should be justify by the return on investment, therefore the chairman should take in to consideration all the financial aspects such as revenue and cost. As one of the most a manager can make is the capital decision. This key decision requires spending now in order to acquire long-lived assets that will be source of cash flow in the future a successful capital investment program will contribute to the firms financial performance for many years.  [3]   Executive Summary: In this case analysis I will try to answer three important questions which can be considered as the base of above mentioned capital investment program Mr. Daniel can set for Tottenham Hotspur club for the coming years. Is Tottenham at the current stock price of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤ 13.80 fairly valued? And to answer such question financial evaluation using DCF should be conducted assuming that Tottenham continues in its current stadium. What will be the value of the chairman decision to build new stadium? And also a DCF should be conducted taking in to consideration the increase on Revenues and capital expenditure. What will be the value of the chairman decision to sign a new striker? Taking in to consideration the cost to be paid to the formal striker club and the running cost of the striker him self once he join Tottenham. Since the purpose of an investment is to get more back, over time, than you put in. One of the most common valuation criteria, which satisfy the above condition, is called NPV. Net Present Value (NPV) (NPV =Present Value of Cash Inflows Present Value of Cash Outflows Decision Rule:  [4]   If NPV>0, then accept the project If NPV=0, then indifference position, go no go situation If NPV Based on the above, and my deep analysis my findings and recommendations are as follows: Tottenham Hotspur current stock price is over valued, Their Enterprise value as a result of DCF is 107.14 Million à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤, therefore the Value per share is 9.73 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤,  [5]   Tottenham Hotspur Enterprise value of 107.14 Million à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤, confirm its rank as No.6 Just after Newcastle United and before Everton,  [6]   Investing à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤250 million in building new stadium is not visible or profitable , DCF based on incremental increase in revenue and operating cost due to Stadium resulted in negative NPV (-60.12)  [7]   Investing à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤20 Million as a cost of acquiring new striker in addition to his high running cost also is not visible or profitable. DCF based on incremental increase in Broadcast and others, and operating cost due to acquiring new striker resulted in negative NPV (-23.5)  [8]   All these questions and comprehensive analysis and recommendations will be included in the main report. The main report and questions Answers : Part one: At its current stock price of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤13.80, is Tottenham fairly valued? To answer this question we should conduct a company valuation, and calculate the Enterprise value (EV) of the company then divide the EV on the total Number of shares. In addition to the available data mentioned in both the balance sheet (Dec.2007) and income statement of Tottenham  [9]  and in order to be able to calculate the change in working capital, the following major assumption has been taken during the evaluation, In order to calculate the change in working capital i calculate it for the first year, then calculate it as % or revenue then I apply the % for the remaining years,  [10]  using this assumption enable me to calculate the Free cash flow and then discount that cash flow using the discounted factor 10.25, to reach Enterprise Value (NPV) of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤107.14 million out of that the Terminal Value and the PV were calculated. Since the company under long term debt of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤43.08 million and having à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤26.29 million as Cash and equivalent their Equity value is à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤90.35 million and accordingly their share value is à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤9.73.  [11]   It is clear that Tottenham share value is over valued and may be that because of commercial issues related to stock market. As a recommendation the management should start looking to find solutions where by the revenue can be increased with a strict control in operating Expenses, in order to increase the cash inflow versus the cash outflow. This will be reflected on their Annual net Income, and consequently on their share price. Part 2: One of the major resources of Tottenham Revenue is the attendance, and their current stadium capacity is limited to 36,500 fans only, however they have about 2.1 million fans in UK, in addition to that they launch an incentive program to their fans One Hotspur Membership scheme which attract over 70,000 fans.  [12]  That is why the club start thinking to build a new stadium which will cost à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤250 million to be paid in two equal installments over two years, such a decision need to be challenged in term of the return as revenue and Net profit , therefore New stadium DCF analysis was conducted to obtain the NPV of the project. The whole scenario was built on the following assumption: Since the cash out (à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤250) will be paid to generate cash in as revenue, so I only took in to consideration the INCREMENTAL increase in revenue( Attendance and Sponsorship only) and the INCREMENTAL increase in operating Cost using the forecasted growth as mentioned in the case  [13]  due to the new stadium. The (à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤250) million were considered as cost of constricting new stadium distributed equally, 2008 and 2009; the increase in capital expenditure was taken as it is forecasted in the case. Since the construction will take two years, the cash in as revenue will start by (2010)  [14]   The DCF result was not satisfactory, NPV is negative (-60.2)  [15]  . My recommendation to Mr. Daniel is not to go with this option based on the given cost of construction, how ever he can think of other solutions to increase the capacity of the stadium at lower cost and I can suggest one of two options The first one is do some expansion to the current stadium if possible to increase the capacity to almost 60,000 fans and definitely this could be at lower cost, The other suggestion is to go in partner ship with one of the small size clubs as to share the cost and benefit from the revenue. Part 3: Do the club has to acquire new striker at the acquiring cost of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤20 million and salary of 2.6 million in the first year to reach à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤6.13 million in ten years or not? And what will be the impact of the new striker on Tottenham revenue and net income?. It goes without saying that answering these questions will depend on the financial analysis of the cash inflow as revenue versus cash outflow as cost. DCF To go with such Analysis I also took major assumptions in addition to what already mentioned in the case, the assumptions are: To consider only the Incremental revenue generated from Broadcast and others.  [16]   The new striker will enhance the team rank and then earned a greater share of league television broadcast revenue. The each moves up in the standings worth an estimated à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤670,000  [17]  . So The club will move one rank up during 2008 season and another move every three seasons due to the strong completions Based on the above data and assumptions, the result of the DCF was not encouraging and the NPV negative (-23.5) therefore the club should not sign with the new striker at these conditions and instead I have the following suggestions: Knowing the importance of acquiring professional strikers Tottenham should negotiate better deal with the formal club of the striker and the striker him self. They can spend some of that money in developing their current strikers and enhancing their performance. An aggressive incentive scheme based on profit sharing could be established to motivate the existing team to enhance their Avg. Net Goals which is currently (-1.9)  [18]  . Because Investment tie up cash, their value is based on the amount of future cash flows that will accrue to investors  [19]  

Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium on Plasma Nitrates

Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium on Plasma Nitrates OBSERVATION AND RESULT 7. Observation and Result 7.1 Behavioral Parameters Values are expressed MEAN ±SEM, n = 6, ** = P Fig. 7.1 Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium on Behavioral Parameters on Stress Induced Anxiety in Mice. 7.2 Biochemical Estimation Values are expressed MEAN ±SEM, n = 6, ** = P Fig. 7.2 Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium on different Biochemical Parameters in Stress Induced Anxiety in Mice. Fig. 7.3 Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium on glutathione reductase activity in Stress Induced Anxiety in Mice. 8. Discussion Behavioral parameters are the primary evidence to confirm anxiety as well as anti-anxiety effect of treatments. All the parameters are based on pathophysiology of anxiety because anxiety or fear is evaluated through stress or immobilization of animal like mice and rats. Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) After immobilization of animals for 3hr, the drug treatment was started for all groups except negative control. Time spent in open arm and closed arm were observed. Time spent in open arm were significantly increased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg 175 ±2.2046 sec. as compared with negative control (258 ±3.2018 sec.). In fear, animal is more favorable to dark area which was shows in negative control. Force Swim Test (FST) Time cycle in seconds was count in all groups. Time cycle per five minute were significantly increased (P>0.001) in Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg (20 ±4.2044) compared with negative control (25 ±2.5421). Light and Dark Test After immobilization of animals for 3 hr, the drug treatment was started for all groups except negative control. Time spent in light and dark area was observed. Time spent in light area were significantly increased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg (178 ±3.5041 sec.) as compared with negative control (58 ±2.1245 sec.). In fear, animal is more favorable to dark area which was shows in negative control. Open Field Test (OFT) OFT is the test to evaluate anti- anxiety effect as well as to compare the statistics with actophotometer because each squire in OFT is 10 Ãâ€"10 cm and each electrode’s difference in actophotometer is 6 cm so the reading should be double in OFT. Animal in control group were shows significant walk fullness in OFT (45 ±2.2405 sec.). After administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg, the animal was shows significant effect (P>0.001). Rearing is the parameter in OFT which shows alertness of animals. After administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg the animal was shows significant effect (P>0.001) in 38 ±4.0510 sec. compared with negative control (18 ±2.5402 sec.). The gaseous messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from its precursor L-arginine by a family of three NO Synthases (NOS), designated as â€Å"neuronal† NOS-I, â€Å"inducible† NOS-II and â€Å"endothelial† NOS-III. In the adult brain, the inducible iso form NOS-II is present only at very low levels in microglia and immune cells, while â€Å"endothelial† NOS-III is expressed predominantly in the vasculature. Whether or not this isoform is also expressed in neural cells, is still a matter of debate but data arguing for this are only sparse. The quantitatively major source for NO in the CNS thus is the â€Å"neuronal† isoform NOS-I present in approximately 1% of all neurons. Nitrinergic transmission is especially important in limbic structures, in the basal ganglia where NO regulates striatal output and in the cerebellum. NO exerts multiple action in the CNS and from animal studies, it has been suggested that it is involved in behavioral p rocesses such as learning and memory formation. Pathologies of the NO pathway have been implicated in almost every major neuropsychiatric disorder including Schizophrenia, affective disorders, Alcoholism, Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson and Huntington’s disease. For some of these disorders, NOS-I has also been identified as a risk gene in human case-control association studies. The role of NO in the regulation of normal human brain functioning however is still unclear, although first genetic studies argue for a function of NOS-I in the regulation of impulsive behaviors. In a second series of experiments, we investigated whether NOS-I knockdown animals have cognitive deficits. Plasma nitrates level was significantly decreased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg (52.23 ±2.1401sec.) as compared with negative control (74.24 ±2.2406). In fear or anxiety, animal were showed increased level of plasma nitrates which was shows in negative control. iNOS level was significantly increased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg (78.37 ±3.2131sec.) as compared with negative control (26.23 ±2.5470 sec.). In addition to its role in cholinergic transmission, substantial evidence has accumulated over the last two decades which suggests a non- cholinergic neuromodulatory function for AChE. Few studies have demonstrated that the expression of AChE during early development correlate closely with the major phase of neurite outgrowth. Layer et al. have showed that AChE inhibitors have been shown to retard neuritic outgrowth in a dose dependent manner in retinal ganglion cells, dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the morphogenic effects of AChE in both in vivo and in vitro systems. AChE is known to regulate the neuritic outgrowth and survival of cultured neurons and also has morphogenic and axogenic role in the developing nervous system. In addition, AChE has a role in cell growth and survival. These functions are considered to be the non-classical roles of this classical enzyme. Furthermore, ACh is also known to enhance the ne uritic outgrowth and in turning of the nerve growth cones. These studies, together with the present demonstration of increased dendritic arborization in the hippocampus, suggest that chronic drug administration induces AChE activity which in turn might modulate dendritic branching pattern in specific brain regions. Ach level was significantly decreased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg (53.26 ±2.0987 sec.) as compared with negative control (81.23 ±3.0245 sec.). The efficacy of this plant extract toward the transmitters was significant. MAO regulates metabolic degradation of catecholamine, serotonin and other endogenous amines in CNS. Inhibition of this enzyme causes reduction of metabolism of these transmitters and subsequent increase of these biogenic amines. MAO-A level was significantly decreased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg (56.6 ±3.3245 sec.) as compared with negative control (86.1 ±2.3024 sec.). MAO-B level was significantly decreased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg (44.8 ±3.2431 sec.) as compared with negative control (73.4 ±2.2061 sec.). Glutathione reductase level was significantly decreased (P>0.001) after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg (1478.5 ±3.2436 sec.) as compared with negative control (1634 ±2.2102 sec.). All values are expressed in U/I. Glutathione reductase level was decreased after administration of extract of Semecarpus anacardium at dose 200 mg/kg in mice. Glutathione reductase is the enzyme which increases in anxiety and depression. This enzyme secretes from hippocampus region of brain. The level of this enzyme was significantly reduced in mice compared with vehicle treated control group. On the bases of behavioral as well as biochemical estimation, study concludes that Semecarpus anacardium shows significant effect in plasma nitrates and other chemical messenger in anxiety at dose of 200mg/kg compared with negative control. 9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The present study is designed to evaluate â€Å"Effect of Semecarpus anacardium on plasma nitrates on stress induced anxiety in mice†. Behavioral parameters show following result: After administration of Semecarpus anacardium Time spent in open arm in Elevated Plus Maze, Time cycle per five minute in Force Swim Test, Time spent in light area in Light and Dark Test, No. of Squire Cross in Open Field Test was significantly increased after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg as compared with negative control. Biochemical Estimations show following result: Plasma nitrates level, Ach level, MAO-A level, MAO-B level, Glutathione reductase level was significantly decreased after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200 mg/kg as compared with negative control. iNOS level was significantly increased after administration of Semecarpus anacardium at dose of 200mg/kg as compared with negative control. On the bases of behavioral as well as biochemical estimation, study concludes that Semecarpus anacardium shows significant effect in plasma nitrates and other chemical messenger in anxiety at dose of 200mg/kg compared with negative control. 6. Materials Methods 6.1 Materials Collection Authentication The plant Semecarpus anacardium has been taken from local market authenticated from Department of Botany Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar M.P. Herbarium No. Bot./her/A/1124. Extraction procedure 6.3.1 Petroleum ether extract: The whole plant nuts was cleaned and shaded dried for 10-15 days. The dried nuts were pulverized by an electrical blender and nut paste obtained. About 30-40 g of the nut paste was subject for extraction with 400 ml of Petroleum ether solvent by Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hrs. Constant heats of 50 60 0C provided by Mantox heater of Soxhlet for recycling the solvent. The extract was concentrate using Rotary evaporator at 60 0C for 20 min at a speed of 5m/s. The concentrated extract kept in refrigerator at 4 0C for further use. (50) 6.3.2 Ethanol extract: The nuts were shed dried for about 20 days and then subsequent to reduce coarse drug particle into fine powder using pestle and mortar. The extraction was carrying out by ethanol solvent Soxhlet extraction techniques. Solvent used consecutively with gradient polarity. The extract evaporated to complete dryness by using vacuum distillation and kept in refrigerator for further use. (51) Phytochemical screening 6.4.1 Tests for Alkaloids Mayer’s Test: Extract treated with Mayer’s reagent (Potassium Mercuric Iodide). Formation of a yellow coloured precipitate indicated the presence of alkaloids. Wagner’s Test: Extract treated with Wagner’s reagent (Iodine in Potassium Iodide). Formation of brown/reddish precipitate indicated the presence of alkaloids. Dragendroff’s Test: Extract treated with Dragendroff’s reagent (solution of Potassium Bismuth Iodide). Formation of red precipitate indicated the presence of alkaloids. Hager’s Test: Extract treated with Hager’s reagent (saturated picric acid solution). Presence of alkaloids confirm by the formation of yellow coloured precipitate. Tannic acid test: Extract treated with 10% Tannic acid solution. Alkaloids gave buff colour precipitate. (52) 6.4.2 Detection of Phenols Bromine water test: Test solution treated with few milliliters of bromine water. Formation of yellow precipitate indicated presence of Phenols. Ferric chloride test: Test solution gave blue green colour with ferric chloride. (53) 6.4.3 Detection of Saponins Emulsion test: 1 ml of the extract filtrate added to few drops of olive oil. The mixture added to another two drops of olive. The mixture shakes and observed for the formation of emulsion. Frothing test: 1 ml of the extract filtrate diluted with 4 ml of distilled water. The mixture was shake vigorously and then observed on standing for a stable froth. 6.4.4 Detection Steroids and Triterepenoids Libermann- Buchard test: Extract treated with few drops of acetic anhydride, boil and cool, conc. Sulphuric acid added from the sides of the test tube. Formation of a brown ring at the junction of two layers and the upper layer turns green which shows the presence of Steroids and formation of deep red colour indicated the presence of Triterepenoids. Salkowski test: Treated extract in Chloroform with few drops of cone. Sulphuric acid, shaked well and allowed standing for some time, red colour appeared at the lower layer indicates the presence of Steroids and formation of yellow coloured lower layer indicated the presence of Triterepenoids. 6.4.5 Detection of Tannins Lead sub-acetate test: 1 ml of the filtrate added to 3 drops of the lead sub-acetate solution. A cream gelatinous precipitate indicated the presence of tannins. Ferric chloride test: 1 ml of the filtrate diluted with distilled water and added with 2 drops of ferric chloride. A transient greenish to black colour indicated the presence of tannins. 6.4.6 Detection of Flavonoids Shinoda test (Magnesium Hydrochloride reduction test): To the test Solution, added few fragments of Magnesium ribbon and added concentrate Hydrochloric acid drop wise, pink scarlet, crimson red or occasionally green to blue colour appeared after few minutes. Alkaline reagent test: To the test solution added few drops of sodium hydroxide solution; formation of an intense yellow colour, which turned to Colourless on addition of few drops of dil. acid, indicated presence of Flavonoids. Ammonium test: A quantity (4 ml) each of the filtrates was shaking with 1 ml of dilute ammonia solution (1%). The layers allowed to separating. A yellow coloration at the ammonia layer indicates the presence of Flavonoids. Aluminium chloride test: A quantity (4 ml) each of the filtrates was shake with 1 ml of 1% aluminium chloride solution and observed for light yellow coloration. A yellow precipitate indicated the presence of Flavonoids. 6.4.7 Detection of Anthraquinones 1. Dilute sulphuric acid (5 ml) added to 0.1 g of the test extract in a test tube and boil for 15 min in a water bath. It was then cool and neutralize with 20% potassium hydroxide solution. A mixture, 10 ml of equal parts of Fehling’s solution A and B will add and boil for 5 min. A more dense red precipitate indicated the presence of glycoside. 2. About 0.5 ml of extract taken and subject to the following tests.1 ml of glacial acetic acid containing traces of ferric chloride and 1ml of concentrate sulphuric acid added to the extract and observed for the formation of the reddish brown colouration at the junction of two layers and the upper layer turned bluish green showed presence of Glycosides. Pharmacological Screening 6.5.1 Animal: Mice required as Animal model Body weight: 25 gms. Floor area per animal: 15 in2. Cage height: 5 inch. Temperature: 64 ° to 79 °F (18 ° to 26 °C). Relative Humidity: 40% to 70%. Number of air changes per hour: 10 – 15. Light levels: 30 foot-candles. Duration of Light: 12 -14 hours. Duration of Darkness: 10 12 hours. 6.5.3 Biochemical Estimation Plasma Nitrate estimation: Plasma nitrate were measured by spectrophotomeric assay based on Griess reaction. Blood were withdrawn from tail vein of mice and plasma were using cooling centrifuge at 2500 rpm for 10 min. Plasma were mixed with equal volumes of Griess reagent (1% Sulphanilamide+ 0.1% naphthylelediamine dihydrochloride+ 2.5 % phosphoric acid) and incubated at room temp for 10 min. to yield a chromophore. Absorbance was read at 543 nm spectophotometrically.(59) i NOS estimation: Sample collection After the behavioral tests, three mice from each group was deeply anesthetized and perfuse with 4% paraformaldehyde for subsequent Nissl staining. The other animals were anesthetized and kill; blood was collected and brains were removed. Blood, anticoagulated with 1.5% EDTA centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 minutes, and then the supernatant was collected. All these samples stored at −80 °C for further analysis. RNA extraction and reverse transcription Total RNA extracted from the brain tissue using Trizol reagent. Total mRNA (1 ÃŽ ¼g) was transcribed using Quant script cDNA RT Kits according to the manufacturer’s manual. Briefly, RNA (1 ÃŽ ¼g) pretreated with DNA-free DNase treatment and removal reagents. RNA samples incubated with a mixture consisting of containing dNTPs, random primers, 10Ãâ€" RT mix, Quant Reverse Transcriptase, a reverse transcriptase and RNase-free water to a final volume of 10 ÃŽ ¼l at 37 °C for 1 h. Real-time RT-PCR cDNA l used for quantification of mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. Real-time RT-PCR will perform on an Applied Rotor-Gene 3000 under the following conditions: iNOS and GAPDH for 40 cycles at 94 °C for 30 s, 63 °C for 60 s, and 72 °C for 90 s. Relative quantitative measurements of target gene levels was performed using the ΔCt method, where Ct is the threshold concentration. GAPDH used as endogenous control to normalize gene expression data, and an RQ value calculated for each sample. RQ values was presented as fold change in gene expression relative to the control group, which normalized to 1. (60) The activity was expressed as m moles hydrolyzed per min per gram of tissue. AChE activity was statistically analyzed by Student’s Statistical analysis The statistical analysis carried out as per standard method. All result expressed as MEAN ±SEM. Groups of data were compared with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by dunnett’s t-test values for statistical significance. Sagar Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sagar M.P. Page 1

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Personal Narrative - Athlete to Academia Essay -- Autobiography Essay,

Athlete to Academia Instead of feeling pressure to conform as a student at the University of Georgia, I have found that being in college has made me value the importance of a higher education more so than I ever had before. During high school, my primary goal was to play well enough to receive a football scholarship. At that time, my focus was not on academics. However, since I've arrived at the University of Georgia, my entire concept of the value of a college degree has slowly changed. Rather than seeing just football in my future, I can now picture myself as a football player with a college degree. Consequently, instead of having a negative impact on my personal growth, college has helped me broaden as a person. Contrary to popular opinion, athletes do have interests outside their sport. Since I enrolled at Georgia, I have found myself intrigued by the painters whose visions were presented in my art class, as well as by the empathy displayed in my social work class. I feel as if I've grown as a person while learning more about the world I live in. My scope of und...

Friday, July 19, 2019

El Patron in The House of the Scorpion :: Nancy Farmer

El Patron in The House of the Scorpion What if there was a world with clones? There would be a way to live for up to 100 years effortlessly, have easy transplants, and maintain a precise memory. But, the recipient would be taking organs from someone else. "So what", he or she may justify, "they're clones, they are inferior. They don't matter because they are stupid." But what if someone had the power to allow them to be of normal intelligence? He or she might think that he or she is doing the clone a favor, but when the clone is killed for spare parts it's an even worse situation than with a retarded clone. Not for this "bandido" (Farmer 37). El Patron is a cruel, selfish, heartless man who clawed his way to power in his youth and rules people with fear, though he is powerful, he is always nagged by the fact that he may lose everything. There is no way on earth he would let that happen. El Patron believes he is doing the clones a favor by allowing them to be smart, but in the end he uses them just like all the other clones in the world - for his own personal use. Esperanza, a fierce No Drug activist, once wrote that “a more evil, vicious, and self-serving man (than El Patron) could hardly be imagined” (Farmer 170). Though the practice of murdering clones is widely accepted in the book, it is morally wrong, and most people would at least have second thoughts about killing someone. Even with his dragon hoard, which he just lets sit there untouched and deeply protected, El Patron becomes outraged with even the slightest of a suggestion towards giving anything away. He is so self-centered, in fact, that at his death greed took over and all of the people inhabiting his part of Opium were silenced and added to his hoard. Power is what El Patron has worked for and what he fears of losing. Unthinkingly describing the drug lord word for word, Tam Lin once said that “Power is a drug, and people like me crave it” (Farmer 243). Though his business is illegal to the rest of the world, he never seems to show any concern about what everyone else’s laws are and he proceeds with what he had planned. Matt and all of the other clones he had created are mere examples of this.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Collective Security Essay -- History, Greek

One of the most confusing and internationally argued topics that gathers so much debate from professors to journalist, journalist, to politicians, and politicians to generals, is known as collective security. The idea of collective security has been around for centuries dating back to the time of the Greeks, however the credit for creating the idea of modern collective security belongs to Woodrow Wilson who coined the theory a couple of years before the beginning of World War I. The theory basically forms the concept that each nations security no longer depends on it having to defend itself against attacks but rather use the joint security of other nations to deter any signs of aggression that can cause any instability among nations. It follows the Balance of Power Theory, but instead of using force to solve any indifferences to use any and all political actions before it gets out of hand and that no other member is more important than the other: all for one, and one for all (1). â€Å"â€Å"My conception of the League of Nations is just this, that it shall operate as the organized moral force of men throughout the world and that whenever or wherever wrong and aggression are planned or contemplated, this searching light of conscience will be turned upon them† (2) In an ideal world, the concept of collective security would be adopted since it would be beneficial for every nation. However, this is not an ideal world, and the theory has been highly criticized from start to finish. Many believe that if a threat were to occur from outside the party than the theory would be useless, (3) as that state is not bounded by any rules and obligations. Another problem consistent with the theory of collective theory is that not every nation may be... ...generality of the system (12), it creates the depiction of the group as a global security institution to be enduring and nonbiased. These seven fundamental aspects are the key to creating a safer world without the fears of terrorism, civil wars or even a world war constantly on our minds. As time goes on, new and old threats are clashing in a subtler yet more public way. Today we are facing the threat of terrorism, civil wars, genocide and nuclear wars. As stated earlier, if a threat where to occur from outside a member then the theory of collective security would be useless, terrorism is one of those outside threats. Nations are no longer dealing with another political party to discuss and resolve issues with but rather a small-scale size of people who are fighting for something they consider a just cause, whether it be the ETA, Al-Qaeda, or the Taliban.

Motivation and Control: The Police Supervisor’s Dilemma

Is there a relationship between the amounts of control desired in a police organization and the ability of police officials to create a motivating environment among rank-and-file officers? If so, how is balance arrived at between these two apparently opposite concerns in police organizations? I believe that the relationship between the control which is desired and the ability to create a motivating environment. It is not a clear cut relationship and it can cause problems within the organization and for the employees. The problem with this relationship is that while the people in charge of the organization want a specified amount of control, they cannot accomplish this without some repercussions. The difficulty lies within how to gain this control without completely alienating every employee who works within the organization. The important part of the relationship is to compromise and understand that the officers have needs which must be addressed. An example of how important that these two needs are met shows in Maslow's Needs Theory. (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). Maslow asserts that the officers have the â€Å"need to feel safe in their environment and free from and threat of attack by aggressors. † (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). The relevance of this to the relationship in question is with Captain Frebe's new strategy to micromanage the officers. This also forces the hands of the sergeants' to take the lead as the overseer's of the micromanagement. The officers and sergeants believe that they are being attacked by an aggressive force, and therefore, their lower needs are not being met. This causes the higher needs to decrease. A balance will not be found with the current strategy that Frebe is using. It makes the officers believe that they cannot be trusted to do their jobs. While there were a number of officers who were not doing their jobs, the changes impacted those who were doing their jobs. The system is too complex. Instead of fixing the situation, it only made it worse. The employees believed that they were unable to do their jobs because they were being micromanaged. The sergeants were angry because the fact that they were being pulled away from their duties to watch the officers and write reports about the officers performance. This was a noble idea, but it was demanding an excessive solution for the situation. If Frebe had requested that the reports were written on a less frequent basis it may have been easier to deal with. For instance a compromise could have been reached if Frebe had solicited feedback before the situation became out of hand. It would have been helpful if Frebe asked the Sergeants and the officers for their input to solve this problem. How could have Captain Frebe instituted the mechanisms for officer accountability without alienating officers? What role do officers have in creating a motivating environment within police organizations? Captain Frebe‘s first mistake was to not ask for advice or for input before implementing such strict changes. The mandatory odometer readings and the quotas for tickets seemed to be an excessive change to implement. There were some officers who were not doing their jobs, but most of the officers were doing a good job. There were other methods that should have been researched before this was implemented. One method could have been the use of the reflection of their â€Å"work performance in their pay raises. With this technique the â€Å"low ratings will hit him in the wallet† (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). Many people are motivated by money, and for those who choose not to do their job up to standard would be paid accordingly. The other option would be to use positive feedback for a job well done. The use of positive feedback can bring and officer a† personal sen se of accomplishment (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). Officers are either going to be motivated or not motivated. â€Å"There is no such thing as motivation† (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). A saying that comes to mind is â€Å"I can not motivate my guys, the only thing I can do is provide them the opportunities and the environment to become motivated. † While it is not only up to the officers to be motivated, they must have others around them who encourage them in their endeavors, and appreciate the hard work that they do. The main concern is that the needs are being met of the officers, and of the organization. There is a dire need of safety and security within the environment of the policing organization. With the dangerousness of the job, officers should at least have the guarantee that while they are in the station and out doing their job that they can do it in the safest manner possible. With the added stress of monitoring so many aspects such as odometer readings and quotas, it could cause any good officer to become seriously stressed out. The officers may also take part in groups such as â€Å"Quality Circle groups† (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). These are groups which enrich the officers and their work experience. It is an organization that promotes the â€Å"well being of the workers. These are beneficial groups who meet on a regular basis with non management members to â€Å"identify, analyze, and recommend solutions to problems within the agency. † These types of groups can make the employees feel that they have a safe haven within their reach to address concerns. Is it true that you really cannot motivate persons in organizations? If this statement i s true, then is there any role for administrators and managers in the motivation of their employees? Are there unique concerns that face police supervisors that make motivation of employees difficult? If so, what are they, and how would you address them? According to the text, there is â€Å"no such thing as a motivation. † (Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, 2003). I do believe that people who are motivated are that way because they want to do their best, this is regardless of the circumstances. It would take a great deal to cause a self motivated person to become a quitter, there is room for managers and administrators within the organizations. However the managers and administrators are not there to motivate, they are there to make money, sell a product, or maintain the organization. It does not mean that they aren't concerned with the employees but the bottom line of getting the job done seems to be the priority. There are definitely concerns within the responsibilities of a police supervisor. They are ever-changing, with time, and with the type of employees. By this I mean that the supervisors may work better with some employees than others. However, in this type of position there cannot be favoritism, you must work and deal with everyone, regardless of whether or not you cannot stand them. The trick is how you approach the situation, hence, the employee. If you remain objective and fair, by removing yourself from a personal relationship with the subordinates it will be easier to see them on an equal level. I think that the biggest issue overall is getting your employees to do what you want without firing everyone and starting over! This is a huge obstacle. I have heard many times of organizations doing what is sometimes referred to as â€Å"cleaning house. † I believe that this should be a last resort tactic. I personally like to believe that most people want to do what is right, and given the right opportunity and environment they can learn how. I personally hate micromanagers, and I would most likely never use this tactic. I figure that if I have to micromanage an employee that they are causing problems, they do not know their job, or do not care about their job. The first option would be to offer the employee more training, not more of my micromanaging services. There is always the possibility that the employee is unsure about a procedure and needs extra help. I would try several techniques before I gave up. There are many ways that a situation like this could be addressed. I would pull the employee into a meeting so that he or she could discuss the issues, and possible solutions. I would do everything on my end to make sure that I addressed all the issues. I do not believe that people should be given up on. I know that there are many other situations a person in this position could be faced with. However, my solution would be to analyze the situation, ask questions, offer help or fins assistance, and take it from there. I believe that people should be treated as people, not just another number.