Thursday, December 19, 2019
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss and explain the value of Human Resource Management on a global scale. Human Resources Management is a valuable asset to many organizations around the world. There are several factors that come into play when considering the functions of business on a worldwide scale. Some aspects of Human Resource Management include training, management development, performance appraisal, and compensation. The focus level in individual areas of Human Resource Management may differ between countries, and organizations, but overall HR is an organizational asset worldwide. Global Human Resource Management According to Hill (2013), human resource management Ã¢â¬Å"refers to the activities an organization carriesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Starting from the day that someone is born he, or she will continue to learn new things throughout their life. We as individuals acquire an education to feed our minds the necessary knowledge that is needed to function in the world. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s time, a solid education is necessary in order to attain decent employment. Although an individual possesses, the required education, training is still necessary to perform essential job functions. Employers provide training to new workers along with continued employees to introduce and reinforce the duties and functions of his or her job. Each company has requirements that potential employees must possess for consideration for employment. When a firm seeks out prospective individual to place in the position of management, the process can be extremely meticulous because of the level of responsibility t heir position entails. Managers are responsible for overseeing part or all aspects of an organization contributing to their overall level of success. Periodically managers may be required to attend training classes to learn or review aspects of the company. The culture of an organization can vary from country to country. It is important to recognize and respect the different cultural aspects of international business. According to Hill (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"an expatriate manager is a citizen of one country who is working aboard in one of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidiariesÃ¢â¬ (p. 570). It is of great importance for an expatriate manager to undergo
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the Product Liability for Manufacturing of Product. Answer: Product liability entails a claimant bringing a claim against a manufacturer for a defect in manufacturing or design of as product. Such a claim is derived from the tort of negligence. The overarching rule entrenched by the law of negligence is that one should reasonably foresee acts or omissions that are like to cause harm to a neighbor (Donoghue v. Stevenson,1932). Ideally, Lording Artkin in the foregoing case defines a neighbor as persons who are likely to be affected by ones act or omissions and should therefore be put in their contemplation. With regards to the thermomis users case, the provisions supplied by common law and statute play an anomalous role in protecting consumers. It is of interest to note that for a negligence claim to succeed there are three essential elements that must be unassailably proved to the court for the action to succeed (Grant v Australian Knitting Mills, 1936). The claimant must establish that a duty of care exited which was breached by the defendant. Suffice to say, he must also show that there was damage or injury suffered as a result of the breach of duty. Before the onset of the application of the neighbor principle by Lord Artkin the claimant was put to ask to show the court that the manufacturer of a product, negligently and recklessly failed to disclose a defect in the product that eventually caused harm (Langridge v Levy, 1837). This formed the basis of the negligent action; however, this requirement has a superficial appearance for limiting the scope of the duty of care. However, not to worry, the neighbor principled has overruled the above assertions (Heaven v Pender, 1883). Duty of care Firstly and most importantly the claimant who in this case will be the thermomix users must establish that the manufacturing company owed them a duty of care. For a duty of care to be so established and to show the court that the duty of care actually existed, a proper test has to be conducted. The litmus for determining the duty of care has since been sufficiently settled in Caparo Industries v Dickman (1990) where the court firmly stated that for duty of care to exist a three stage test must be met. The harm or injury that visited the claimant as a result of the act or omissions of the defendant must be one that is on the face of it reasonably foreseeable (Kent v Griffiths, 2000) . Unforeseeable acts do not establish a duty of care. To make this protestation solid, it is a statutory requirement that for the defendant to show that the acts or omissions were not foreseeable they must prove that they exercised all reasonable care and skill to ensure that the products were safe for use (Civil Liability Act 2002 NSW s 5O and 5P). A relationship of proximity must exist between the claimant and the defendant for duty of care to be deemed to exist (Home Office v Dorset Yacht Club, 1970). This relationship is a legal relationship that bestows upon the defendant a duty of care. The thermomix users must thus show that such a relationship existed. Actually, it can be inferred that by the fact that the users were clients of the manufacturing company a legal relationship and one of proximity existed between them and thus the manufacturing company owed them a duty of care. In closing the requirements for the duty of care, it has been stated that the court will look at all facets of the case before it considers whether it is just and reasonable to impose a duty on the manufactures (Capital v Hampshire County Council, 1997). Breach of duty / causation It is indispensible that the claimant proves that as a result of the breach the duty the defendant suffered harm. The court must buy the proclamation by the claimant that the harm suffered was a result of the negligent act or omissions of the defendant (Civil Liability Act 2002 WA pt. 1A div 3 s 5c). Over and above, it is now a settled position that section 5c of the civil liability act 2002 borrows the idea inherent in it from the common law test, the But for Test (Adeels Palace Pty Ltd v Mubarak Bou Najem, 2009). The aforementioned test was correctly applied in Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital (1968) where the court stated that if the defendant shows that the harm would have occur but for the negligent omissions then a causal link will not be established between the harm and act of the defendant. To sum it up a general test in determining whether there the defendant was in breach of the duty of care and consequently ,whether the breach led to causing harm and injury to the defendant, the Bolam test will applied. The court will judge from what an ordinary skilled person in the same line of work would have done to prevent any harm (Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee, 1957). Ideally, the manufacturers of the thermomix will be to test to determine whether they had done all what was reasonable and what an ordinary man in the same line of work would have done to avoid the harm that visited the harm that visited the thermomix users. Defenses Available The defendant can buy the argument that the claimant volunteered to the act thereby stating the maxim volentis non fit injuria. It however, remains a fallacy that such a possible defense can sufficiently persuade the court. It is insensible that any reasonable and normal person will volunteer to harm themselves without a just cause. This argument therefore would most likely be defeated as soon as it arrives to the attention of the judges. The defense of contributory negligence is advisably, a strong defense that the thermomix manufactures can plead in this case. The defendants will thus have to admit liability of the harm suffered by the defendant but they can plead that the harm was also contributed by the claimant. It is a very interesting argument as it the thermomix manufactures can persuade the court that the harm was contributed by the claimants negligent omissions in not abiding by the safety precautions of the appliances. Significantly, the thermomix users are advised that the principles that are applied in determining liability in negligence will also be applied in determining liability in contributory negligence defense. (Civil Liability Act 2002 (WA) s 5k) 2. An award of compensatory damages is a common law remedy that is found on the tort law principle that where a claimant successfully shows that he or she suffered harm as a result of the actions of the defendant, they should be put back in the same position they were as if the harm had not occurred. Interestingly, a trend has cropped up in Australia and other jurisdictions where a cap on the damage is placed. This has been an emotive issue that has aroused the attention of the legal fraternity. It is instructive to note that the cap or limit has only been implemented on damages for non-economic loss. Previously a limit on damages for non economic loss was only placed on defamation actions (Defamation Act 2005 (NSW) s 35). The provisions on limitation of damages have now become notorious and conspicuous in Australian Law. It is now a settled law that for civil liability actions damages for personal injury claims have a limit reward of $551500 (Civil Liability (Non-Economic Loss) Amendment Order 2013). This limit is a revision of an earlier reward of $350000 (Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW) s 16). Damages for non-economic loss include pain and suffering which occasionally poise a quandary to the court in determining the amount of damages to be paid in monetary terms (Office of the Australian Information Commissioner, Submission 66). An argument pursuant to the emerging of the limits on damages has emerged and it asserts that these limit have presented a gambling opportunity for the claimants to decide which of an action to pick depending on where they are going to profit a lot and that the authors of this law have only added an insult to an existing injury (Nicholas, 2012). On the contrary, the caps have been received with much celebration by the common citizen in the county and the business fraternity at large including medical practitioners. In fact, Rolf (2012) campaigns for a higher cap on damages that are derived from a statutory action. The fact that the courts have experienced difficulty in quantifying the amount of damages for pain and suffering is incontrovertibly a fitting justification for the existence of the limitations. (Krauss, 2014). The costly and unreasonable awards of damages by the court that have been comparatively influenced by emotions have since been repressed by the provisions of limitation on damages. (Ward, 1988). In the United States for instance, it has been discerned that the jury has sometime sympathized with the claimants, a reality that has been argued to be turning the courts into courts of emotions rather than law. This is an outright flagrant violation of the rights of the defendant party to a fair trial and the right to be heard. In a bid to apply the facts of the thermomix users case in this discussion it is it prudent to note that the both the thermomix users and the manufacturers should celebrate the bringing to life of limitation on damages (Sharkey, 2005). It may seem facile to say so but these limitations reduce the cost of doing business and cost of products in the market. Accordingly, if a heavy sum of damages is awarded in the thermomix case their insurers will have to suffer the burden of compensating the heavy sum of money. This will result in the amendment of the amount of premiums that the manufacturing company. On seeing this, the manufacturing company will share the burden to the cost of their products which will inordinately increase. On a lighter note the medical practitioners and their patients alike have also celebrated the damage caps. The cost of medication was skyrocketing as medical insurers increased their premiums to. It has been said that a majority of doctors will not give their best attention and decision in deciding the medical of their patients for fear of negligence law suits (Brown and Robert, 1999). With the caps, doctor can be free for the costly and unreasonable amount of damages that was imposed on them. Patients on the other hand have benefited from reduced medical expenses. Other pertinent arguments that have aroused the concern of the legal fraternity are that the damage caps have intruded on the doctrine of separation of powers. The lawmakers have been held to have taken away the discretionary function of the judges. They argue that the damages can only assessed on case by case basis by the court who will be hearing the parties. Some have propounded the argument that the takes away the constitutional right to heard by a competent court or jury. Some manufacturers have however taken advantage of these caps such as in defamation cases where the defendant who can be a Newspaper Company knowingly makes a defamatory statement but they do so because the sales that will be made preponderate against the limit placed on the damages. It is thus a recommendation that the law that provides for the limitation of damages should not be an absolute law but rather one that also accommodates some exceptions to fit in meritorious claims that wont see the caps sufficiently compensating the claimant. 3. The need to protect consumers is one that has existed since antiquity and in Australia the Australia Consumer Law (ACL) has the moral imperative to protect the consumers within their jurisdiction. For the purpose of the thermomix case the ACL protects the consumers from safety defects of product from manufacturers that cause harm to the consumers. Manufactures products that are not safe for general use attract liability to the manufacturing company for economic loss, personal injury and damage that has been suffered (Australia Consumer law part 3-5). The locus standi in product liability claims that are initiated pursuant to the ACL has been extended to also include regulators who must have consent from the injured parties. Essentially, this implies that the regulators can also sue on behalf the users who have been harmed by the defective products of the consumers. There are grounds that must be satisfied for a claim to be brought under the ACL (Australia Consumer Law Section 138-141). At the onset the claimant must prove that the harm or injury suffers was as a result of the defect in the product. The defect in the product should not be defined by poor quality of the product but the product should in the eyes of a reasonable person be actually defective. The thermomix injured users were harmed by the defect in the product and thus they satisfy the first ground. Surprisingly, persons who were not directly users of the product but were injured as a result of the defective product can also bring a claim. Further, if a person is injured as a result of the injuries that were suffered by the users of the product, he or she can also institute a claim. Where property such a land is destroyed by a defective product and someone if injured in the process, he she is into the bargain entitled to a legal claim against the manufacturers. Over and above all stated, the two companies involved in our fact in issue, Vorwerk Co. KG and Australia Pty Ltd TIA, are regarded as manufacturers of the product albeit the Australian company seems not to be the actual manufacturer. It has been held that they are both equally liable to the claims of the thermomix users (Leeks v FXC Corporation, 2002). Defenses The defenses to the defective goods actions are only allowed within the Australia consumer Law part3-5 sections 142 and 148. The thermomix manufactures can claim that the safety defect being claimed by the claimants was not in existence at the time the product was delivered to the user. The manufacturers can also rely on the defense that at the time the product was being dispatched for delivery the manufactures did not have the scientific and technical capability to detect any further defects in the product and that they exercised reasonable skill and care to ensure that there were no safety defects in the products. The manner and mode in which the goods were packed or designed can also be a possible defense where the manufacturers can claim that the goods were not packed in a manner that is up to standard. However, despite it being a defense under the ACL this defense does not hold water and would in most instances be defeated. In conclusion the manufactures in product liability claims can claim that it is in the nature of the goods to be harmful unless the directions provided for use are strictly adhered to (Cook v Pasminco, 2000). References Adeels Palace Pty Ltd v Moubarak; Adeels Palace Pty Ltd v Bou Najem  HCA 48 Australia Consumer law Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital (1968)3 All ER 1068 Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) 1 WLR 582 Browne, J. and Robert, P. (1999). The Effect of Legal Rules on the Value of Economic and Non-Economic Damages and the Decision to File. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 18(2): 189-213. Caparo Industries v Dickman (1990) 2 AC 605 Capital v Hampshire County Council (1997)QB 1004 Carroll v Fearon, Bent and Dunlop Ltd (1999) PIQR P146 Civil Liability Act 2002 WA Civil Liability Act 2002 NSW Cook v Pasminco  FCA 677) David, R. (2005). The Interaction of Remedies for Defamation and Privacy Precedent 14 Defamation Act 2005 (NSW) Donoghue v. Stevenson (1932) UKHL 100 Grant v Australian Knitting Mills (1936 ) A.C. 562 Heaven v Pender (1883) 11 QBD 503 Home Office v Dorset Yacht Club (1970) AC 1004 Kent v Griffiths (2000)2 WLR 1158 Krauss, M. (2014). Pain and Suffering' and the Rule of Law: Why Caps Are Needed Langridge v Levy  EngR 156 Leeks v FXC Corporation  FCA 72 Nicholas, P. (2012). Reforming the Remedy: Getting the Right Remedial Structure to Protect Personal Privacy, 17 Deakin Law Review 139 Office of the Australian Information Commissioner Sharkey, M. (2005). Unintended Consequences of Medical Malpractice Damages Caps, 80 New York Univ. Law Rev. 391 The Australian Consumer Law, (2010) A guide to provisions The Australian Consumer Law, (2012) An essential guide for product manufacturers and suppliers Viscusi ,W. (1996). Pain and Suffering: Damages in Search of a Sounder Rationale, Michigan Law and Policy Review 1: 141-178. Willsher v Essex Area Health Authority (1988) 1 AC 1074 Ward, J. (1988). Origins of the Tort Reform Movement, Contemporary Policy Issues 6: 97-107.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
What do you think makes a perfect home Essay A sweet home needs a good society. A house is made of mud and bricks but home is made of love. In some places houses are made for the people but somewhere people are made for the houses. In a hotel people dont know whos living next to the door but in home people know their neighbours. A welcoming home is a perfect home. A home is made of love, sorrow, laughter, excitement, hope, care, atmosphere and feelings of everyone. People are entertained. A home which elmanate feelings of warmth and affections is perfect home. In homes we laugh, in homes we cry, and born in homes and in homes we die. A home reflects our personality . When a guest enters in the house he comes to know what sort of person youre by just looking the way youve decorated your house. A home is a place where the diseased world dies on. The doors are made with steps of patience and hospitality. My doors are not made by wood but theyre made by the sweet smile which always welcome others. A home is a blessing in disguise and its the hope for tomorrow. Its a preparing ground for the future. We will write a custom essay on What do you think makes a perfect home specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now A home is a mothers heaven, her kingdom. Its a desire of every girl. When a child is born in a house, he/she is crying and everyone around him/herlaughing but when the same child dies, he/she is laughing but everyone around him/her is crying. Our country is also our homw, so its our duty that we always keep it clean. A house needs a discipline and everyone follows that. People in a home gather on special occasions and enjoy themselves, they tell their secrets to each other, they enjoy their great events by recalling them. A home reveals and also conceals. In a home our values matter and the wishes are fulfilled by our parents. A home is a place to rest. To say the word home is quite easy but to maintain it is really difficult. Theres no place except home which seems like heaven to us. Thats what home is all about. When a girl grows up, she dreams of a perfect home and when she gets married, she tries her level best to give her dream a true face.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Growing up in the streets of Brooklyn was a complex struggle. Throughout 1990's Bedford-Stuyvesant was known for the notorious gangs and selling of drugs. Born and raised in Marcy projects I grew up of loving the game of basketball and baseball. Very similar to the television show Everybody Hates Chris My parents was extremely strict, my father provided for the family by working two jobs, while my mother stayed home and took care of me, my two brother and one sister. My neighborhood was rough and dangerous, so hanging out in the street was not an option; I had to use recreation center and after school program as tools to keep get me off the streets. I could actually say I was a proficient athletic as young boy. Many trophies for baseball and basketball sit in my mother living room. I was even offered a part-time scholarship to Bishop Loughlin catholic high school for basketball but was turned down because of my parent's inability to pay for the other half of the school fees. As I grew older my love for sports started to diminish. I started to put more interest in girls, money and less into school and sports. During my early childhood years I was on the worst end of a couple accidents as my broke my arm two times. My first broken arm occurred when I was ten; it was during a game steal the bacon when I was pushed into the gate by a member of the opposite team making me go flying into the gate causing me to break my arm. The second time happened during my tenth grade high school year. I really can't explain how it happen only thing. It was a complete blur; all I could remember was being in gym class and slipping on the blue mattresses that are used for gymnastic. I said damn not again, I screamed and looked down to towards my arm to see it was bent like a wired hanger, get off me I shouted. I got this cause all you going to do is place more pain on my arm. My second time breaking my arm required surgery; having two metal pins placed inside of my right ar m. While attending William E. Grady high school I wasn't the biggest fan of school. Getting me to attend school was like making a prostitute to attend a church sermon. I would cut school occasionally to just hang on the block or to talk to girls. Waking up 6:45am to travel an hour and half for school was dreadful. Imagine being on the train with bums, alcoholics and watching the sunrise, as young boy these new scenery was disturbing, so I avoided these picture by not ditching school. It was difficult for me to attend a new in high school your childhood friend wasn't attending. My perspective towards school changed during my eleventh grade year. I had failed five of seven classes and I wasn't going to graduate. My guidance counselor Ms. Mendez was really considering transferring me to an alternative school. She anxious to speak to someone from my family to tell my situation with school and the path I was heading down. It wasn't to that very meeting between my aunt and Ms. Mendez that I realize I needed to change my lifestyle. It took everything in my aunt power not to place a hand across my face in the Ms. Mendez office, but instead she gave me a lecture. After seeing the tears shed from my aunts very made me realize that I didn't want to be seen as other dude in the street and living in my neighborhood it was possible to happen. Therefore I looked as school as my getaway making sure to graduate from high school. I went on to graduate from high school in august of 2004. So are we going back to your apartment? Vanessa replied ?yeah we can go back to my house. Do you smoke? Because I?m trying to get high? I reply ?nah but I would like to try it. I?m a heavy drinker though? her response was ?No problem I have a bottle of patron in the
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Childhood Memory/ Descriptive Piece Essays - Free Essays Childhood Memory/ Descriptive Piece Every fortnight I was faced with the taunting experience of retrieving the eggs and every fortnight the task became more and more daring. Each morning at Nonis (grandmother) house a war between the chickens and I emerged from the normally silent yard, a war that separated all good from the world and emphasized death, destruction and danger. Every morning at Nonis house the boy that I was turned into a manly structure, ready for battle. The sun beamed through the old wooden shutters as the light splashed across his dormant eyes, beckoning him to awaken and absorb the early morning warmth. Each ray of light produced a comforting sensation persuading the boy to emerge from his overnight coma and venture out beneath the newborn sun. The warmth soon turned to a chill as a noise from the far corner of the backyard seized everything that was pleasant. The chicken sounds were calling him, reminding him of his duty..tempting him. Awakening very slowly the boy began to prepare himself for battle, just the way his grandfather had told of his experiences. The boy began to prepare himself both physically and mentall, knowing that one mistake could be the difference between failure and success. The young boy was ready and the beast that lived inside of him was to be exposed to a morning of frightful duties. The young boy was now the beast and the beast was the young boy and with the two minds combined a war was about to begin. He marched with enormous confidence until he reached the large back door that was the gateway to either treasures or torment. A fear inside him was released as he opened the door and proceeded with his mission to recover the prized treasure. He had all senses alert and functioning, ready for any enemy attack from the large, distrustful chickens. His knees and elbows slid along the wet dew of the morning grass like a snake carefully maneuvering its body, hiding from any danger. In front of him was a large cluster of grapevines that blocked any vision or path towards the enemies' barracks. There was no way around the large tangled knot, as this method would expose his route of attack to the enemy. Having no other option the cunning boy had no choice but to go through the vines. His body becoming a large grapevine, ducking and weaving through the tangled domain. The vines did not appreciate his presence and every meter he gained a new gash tore open the bare skin on his legs. He sensed the pressure build as he reached the forefront of the enemy barracks. Before him was a large rusted structure which foreshadowed any positive aspects which had arisen from the attack. The enemy headquarters oozed with a vibe of danger and evil. He decided not to turn back and thus moved onwards. His mission was established and all his knowledge and expertise was then crafted into an attempt to conquer what was rightfully his. He slowly invaded the enemy fortress that was covered by a wide expanse of rust and debree. Slowly and quietly he maneuvered his way around the shed, carefully he did not to make any sudden movements or sounds so as to alert the enemy. He held his position momentarily and observed if there was any movement evident inside the enemy fortress. He stalked the enemy and he felt the enemy stalking him. He then reached the opening of the fortress. A large corrugated iron door separated the young boy from victory and this large barrier to entry was an unexpected obstacle and delay. The door was so big that the latch to grant access into the disgusting pit was not accessible. His plans were disrupted and so he used all of his knowledge to overcome this unexpected occurrence. There wasn't into the fortress and this small dilemma began to be extremely costly time-wise. Due to this loss in time my enemy slowly began to gain advantage over me and I knew that I had to act quickly in order to save my mission. In the far bottom corner of the shed I could see a small opening. Obviously my
Thursday, November 21, 2019
What are the roles of men and women in marriage - Essay Example He indicated this when He said "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (Genesis 2:18). God formed woman to round out mans incompleteness, so that physically, socially, emotionally, intellectually, and even spiritually, male and female would not be rivals, but mates (Coblentz, 141-178). It is worthwhile to note that God created man and woman on the same day with equal identity. That is, both were made in the image of God (Gen. 1:24-31) and both were given the mandate by God to "be fruitful and multiply and subdue the earth" (Gen. 1:28). God also formed woman from mans side (Gen. 2:21-22) as a helper comparable to him (Gen.2:18). The man and his wife were to become one flesh (Gen. 2:24). The home is the basic unit of society. In Genesis 2:24 we read, "Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh". Thus marriage and the home were established by God Himself and it was intended to l ast a lifetime (Matt. 19:6-9, Mal. 2:14-16). During the last few decades cultural changes has redefined the meaning and responsibilities of man and woman in society and in the home. However, there exist a lot of confusion regarding their roles. Many men are confused and insecure. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of a good role model for leadership at home and they have no mental picture of what it means to lead a family. The Bible makes it clear that while men and women are inherently equal (Gen. 1:27, I Cor. 11:11-12), the man is to take the leadership role in the home (Eph. 5:22-24, I Pet. 3:1-7, I Cor. 11:3,7-10, Gen. 1:26-27, Gen. 5, Gen. 18:19 etc.). This relates not only to the wife, but to the children as well (Eph. 6:4, Deut. 6:6-8, Prov. 3). In the scriptures true meaning of Christian marriage is mentioned in Ephesians 5:22-32 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. For the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
1950s- & American Indian - Essay Example With the desire to live in the quaint came the inevitable impact on the inner urban facets of American life. Also an era which saw more women at home, rather than the present in which it has become quite commonplace for numerous American households to be comprised of two working adults, rather than 50 years ago when it was undoubtedly the role of the male to be the breadwinner and his wife would be responsible for the maintenance of the home and hearth. With the law in place of separation of church and state, there have been many who look back at the era of the 50s and the presence of spiritual and religious discussion that seemed to occur more freely then than what it does now. Two clear signs of such open discussion involve the addition of Ã¢â¬Å"under godÃ¢â¬ to the pledge of allegiance, as well as the addition of Ã¢â¬Å"in god we trustÃ¢â¬ to the American currency. Two strong examples of how deeply rooted religion was at the time for many and the need felt to keep it close to the vest as it came to national practices. Central themes for many that lived in the time were the importance of family, the value of a strong economy and what it would mean for providing a strong way of life, as well as maintaining a strong connection to god and the principles set forth from religious teachings. In the end, for many people, the 1950s were a time in which many felt there was great prosperity and great hope. Television was used in suc h a manner to portray a human landscape of the strong male role model, the supportive role of the female and also the role of the children to be pleasantly precocious but well mannered. It can be asserted that a great many people essentially felt their was great promise to be had and considerable prosperity for all. Just as other minorities that wished to exert their rights, the American Indians set forth with a plan of obtaining recognized rights and liberties from the national level. The 1950s would be a decade
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Mini project 2 - Assignment Example From picture 1, there are two main loads that acting on the bridge. These are 1.Dead load, This refer s to the permanent weight of both the structured and non Ã¢â¬âstructure component of the bridge. This include the roadway used by the vehicle on the object , sidewalk and the attached equipments. Dead loads on a bridge are based on material unit and are based on material unit and are of constant magnitude. On designing a bridge dead load, must be estimated. In order to counteracted the resultant effects of the external loads, it is good to compute the final dead load of individual portions of the bridge structure before designing the final supporting members. This refers to the weight of the vehicle that cross the bridge. Each of these individual vehicles comprises of a series of concentrated moving loads that vary in spacing and magnitude. When the loads move, a number of changes are generated in shears, reaction and moments in the members of the structure. The extent of these resultant forces depend on the number of spacing, weight and the position of the loads on the span. To produce the maximum impacts for each stress, the designer must position the line vehicle loads well. From picture 1, it is true that when a piece of material e.g. steel or a steel reinforced concrete is stressed by a force of granite due to the load of the vehicle, the cross sectional material does several things. In general the top must compress [compression forces ] and the bottom must stretch [Tensional forces]. This gives rise to the following stresses as shown in the picture 1. This is the stress that
Friday, November 15, 2019
Impact of Police Community Support Officers Abstract Police forces across England and Wales in 2002 have been provided with a new member of the police force to support police officers. These Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) were introduced in the Police Reform Act 2002 to address disorder, low level crime, high visible patrols, and public reassurance. This Act gave a list of limited standard and discretionary police powers to PCSOs. The role of the PCSO as an extended member of the police family links the community to the police, without all the powers typically associated with policing. This limitation has cast doubt over their effectiveness within the local community. This report shows how powers vested in PCSOs have evolved to address issues of public confusion around their capabilities. Then the report argues that PCSOs patrols have made an impact upon crime levels and analyses criticism made about the PCSOs. This Report uses the British Crime Survey (BCS) trends in certain crime from 1981 to 2007. The trends show that since the PCSOs introduction in 2002 the majority of crime levels have started to decrease. Finally this report critically debates remarks made by David Gilbertson about PCSOs and compares them against case studies that have been conducted to find that these remarks are not at all true. Acronym ACPO Association of Chief Police Officers ASB Anti Social Behaviour BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BCS British Crime Survey BCU Basic Command Unit CDA Crime and Disorder Act 1998 CSO Community Support Officer CSOs Community Support Officers FPN Fixed Penalty Notice PCSO Police Community Support Officer PCSOs Police Community Support Officers PRA Police Reform Act 2002 Introduction Policing in the United Kingdom (U.K) is undergoing considerable change; it is changing in profound ways, engineering the introduction of Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs). Ever since the introduction of PCSOs in the Police Reform Act (PRA) 2002, there has been much criticism ranging from their need in the community, to their effectiveness in their roles within society. These issues need to be addressed in order to give PCSOs the recognition they deserve. This report will show if the criticisms made are true or false in regards to PCSOs effectiveness around their roles within society. In order to do this it will seek to answer the following three aims:- Aim one How PCSOs powers have evolved over the course of time Aim two Have PCSOs impacted recorded crime whilst on patrol? This would act as statistical towards their effectiveness in society. Aim three Finally it aims to answer whether unpleasant claims made by Gilbertson are true or false, by comparing and contrasting studies that have been conducted. Hypothesis Ã¢â¬â This report predicts that PCSOs are needed and are effective in their roles. As a result the report aims to add a new dimension to resources available surrounding the PCSOs need and effectiveness. Structure of Report The report is presented in four chapters: Chapter One: The Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) and their Functionality This chapter provides the history on the PCSO. In addition it explores the PCSOs roles and how their powers have evolved to address issues of public confusion. Chapter Two: The Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) on Patrol This chapter looks at what PCSOs do on patrol and what the main issue they would face whilst on patrol is? Finally using the British Crime Survey trends on crime it assesses if PCSOs have made an impact on crime levels, since their introduction. Chapter Three: Gilbertson perspective on PCSOs against studies This chapter simply critically debates a certain remarks made by David Gilbertson about PCSOs using case studies that have been conducted. Chapter Four: Conclusion and Recommendations Simply brings together the main points that arise from pervious chapter to answer the main aims of this report and will state all recommendations that may have been expressed in the previous chapters. Literature Review Over this last decade, there has been considerable change in the way in which neighborhood policing is carried out. One of these changes has been the introduction of the Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs); PCSOs were first introduced in the Police Reform Act 2002. Since the introduction of PCSOs in 2002 there has been much criticism ranging from their, need in the community, to their effectiveness in their roles within society. There are limited resources surrounding the issues of need and effectiveness on PCSOs, this may be due to their relatively recent introduction. However this review will look at some available resources in order to compare and contrast the effectiveness of PCSOs. In doing so my study aims to add a new dimension to resources available surrounding the PCSOs need and effectiveness. The literature surrounding the introduction of PCSOs, Cooper et al (2007) Paskell (2007) and Crawford et al (2004) agreed that PCSOs were introduced in the Police Reform Act 2002 and also agree on the roles and powers PCSOs posses. However the aims of each studies vary, Cooper et al (2007) study is conducted for the Home Office. The Home Office funded this study due to the demands for a national evaluation of PCSOs. There were three key aims for Cooper et al study, these were; first to provide a national profile on PCSOs in terms of their activities, deployment, designated powers and demographics. The second was to provide indications of the impact PCSOs have on the public, in terms of their levels of reassurance, their perceptions and an understanding of their roles. The final aim was to provide indications of impact PCSOs on low level crime/disorder, incidents and anti social behavior (ASB). The methods used by Cooper et al (2007) were both quantitative and qualitative to gain research. The variety of data collected provided a stronger reliability around their findings as the data collected was of a large capacity. Data on a national level was collected from a survey of forces and a survey of PCSOs, by means of questionnaires. This is very reliable source of research as it done national and can be used as a national piece of evidence. On a local level three forces where chosen as case studies and from each force four areas were selected for a detailed study. Two of these areas were control areas where PCSOs had not been deployed, and the other two areas where PCSOs had been deployed for some time. Across the four forces interviews were conducted in police forces to collect data on a wide range of issues including, PCSOs deployment, supervision, training, induction and integration. The interviews were conducted on the two areas where PCSOs were deployed. Also data was collected from the control areas, after PCSOs were deployed, on their impact on crime levels for a two week period. This is reliable as the range of evidence collected is immense, due to the interviews carried out over four different forces. Controls were used, for the data to be compared with, as this is very important. This ensures the data collected was overall a result of the PCSOs alone, as they were not present in the control force areas. However the research should have been carried out for more than two weeks to gain more valid results, enhancing the reliability of their findings. Also the reliability of Cooper et al (2007) research can be improved if they could carry out their study again, in the same manner. This would allow the two studies to be compared and contrasted to determine if PCSOs are effective. Cooper et al (2007) concluded from their research that there was a need for PCSOs, as they act as visible and familiar presence through foot patrol and community engagement. As this was an issue due to police officers having less time to carry out these roles. This is an important piece of literature to my study as it tells me there is a need for the PCSOs. However Cooper et al (2007) did state that there were a range of factors that limited the PCSOs effectiveness. How PCSOs are deployed, how integrated they are and staff turnover that may impinge these requirements. These factors even though will not be considered in my study, still will need to be understood. They may provide valuable insight into the roles of the PCSOs and what they encounter on patrol. Crawford et al (2004) investigated if PCSOs and other members of the extended police family had impacted recorded crime? This study was funded by University of Leeds Centre for Criminal Justice Studies. Crawford et al compared trends in crime levels in the cities of Leeds and Bradford, also conducting a study which used a twin site public opinion survey to assess the impact of PCSOs on the public (2004). Crawford et al (2004) research appeared to provide positive light on PCSOs and other members of the extended police family, who can have an impact in relation to recorded crime. Crawford et al (2004) study showed that overall crime rates fell in these cities where PCSOs had been deployed. However Crawford et al (2004) was cautious around the interpretation of their findings, concluding that it is difficult to attribute changes in crime to PCSOs alone. The twin site public opinion survey found that PCSOs are a popular innovation within communities and the public perceived an increase in police patrolling. This is a valuable source of information of what the public thinks of the PCSOs, also with the comparison of crime statistics would show if PCSOs have contributed to crime reduction since the deployment. However it can not be used as a national evaluation of what the entire population thinks of the PCSOs or can show how it has impacted other communities. Furthermore, it may only be seen as valid for the cities of Bradford and Leeds, and invalid for other cities nationwide, as opinions of PCSOs may be different in other cities. Invalid due to PCSOs powers being changed as of 1st December 2007 (Home Office 2007) and the research was conducted two years on from when PCSOs initial introduction, which may be seen as less time to assess them. This is useful to my study as it tells me there may be other factors that have impacted crime levels, something which will be touched on in my study. Paskell (2007) on the other hand started conducting their research in 1998 to 2006, on 12 representative disadvantaged neighbourhoods, looking into key factors with neighborhood decline and renewal. Also it was documented in their research on government regeneration and housing renewal. In 2006 Paskell completed their final rounds of visits on these neighborhoods. This research was intended for another purpose but also led to their report in 2006 on Ã¢â¬ËPlastic Police or Community Support? : The Role of Police Community Support Officer with in low-income NeighborhoodsÃ¢â¬â¢. Paskell (2007) research is more valid as it has been conducted over a longer period of time, from before the PCSO existence and few years after the enactment and can be used as more persuasive argument of their impact. Paskell (2007) agrees with Cooper et al (2007), that PCSOs involvement was evident to policing and beyond. However Paskell (2007) did note that the research on PCSOs was conducted shortly after they were introduced and suggests may be PCSOs need more time to make impact before they can be analyzed on their effectiveness. All three research studies showed PCSOs in a positive light, being an asset to the community. The information provided by Cooper et al (2007) study on the effectiveness of PCSOs, roles and powers of PCSOs and overall background on PCSOS, is the beneficial for my study as it provides knowledge on PCSOs. However it is not all thumbs up for the PCSOs, as they have come across certain criticism, such as from David Gilbertson Ã¢â¬Å"Preventative patrolling, once the jewel in the crown of British policing, has been abandoned  to be replaced by an imitation service delivered by semi-trained auxiliariesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . Gilbertson claims that PCSOs are imitations of police officers, and that the funding for PCSOs should just be used to recruit more police officers, who are fully trained, unlike the PCSOs. Just like the three research studies showed limitations, there are limitations for the study I intend to carry out. The lack of literature and valid research limits my research; also the lack of time given to conduct the study limits the possibility of gaining valid and reliable results. Even still I wish to carry out the study on PCSOs, to provide more clarity on the topic of PCSOs using the limited literature and studies around. In doing so my study aims to answer gaps overlooked by these scholars; firstly how PCSOs powers have evolved over the course of time, secondly have PCSOs impacted recorded crime whilst on patrol. Finally it aims to answer if such criticisms made by Gilbertson are true or false, by comparing and contrasting studies that have been conducted. Research Methodology Over this last decade, there has been considerable change in the way in which neighborhood policing is being carried out. One of these changes has been the introduction of the Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs). PCSOs were first introduced in the Police Reform Act 2002 (PRA). Since the introduction of PCSOs in 2002 there has been much criticism ranging from their, need in the community, to their effectiveness in their roles within society. There are limited resources surrounding the issues of need and effectiveness on PCSOs, this may be due to their relatively recent introduction. The aims of the research to be conducted will seek to address the following issues in regards to PCSOs: Aim one How PCSOs powers have evolved over the course of time Aim two Have PCSOs impacted recorded crime whilst on patrol? Aim three If criticisms regarding PCSOs effectiveness around their roles within society are true or false, by analyzing the data collected from this study. The first two aims can be found without the need to gain extra research or independent research. Aim one can be found by simply looking at the literature around on the PCSOs, and aim two will be answered by using the British Crime Survey Statistics on trends in Crime from the year 1981 to 2007. Crime trends in overall crime will tell what crime levels were, before the PCSOs were enacted, and since their enactment if they have changed. To assess if certain criticism made about PCSOs effectiveness around their roles within society are true or false, this report will collect research surrounding the publics view on PCSOs effectiveness and if the public feel they are needed. The methods that will be used to gain the necessary data to be analyzed will be questionnaires. The questionnaires will be carried out across the nation in ten cities were PCSOs have been deployed, with a sample size of five hundred people per city. Due to the lack of funding, questionnaires are the best option in obtaining data from the public on if they believe PCSOs are effective. Also the lack of funding would mean it will be hard to carry out a bigger sample size or carry out the questionnaires for more cities. By doing questionnaires the advantages are gaining research quick and effectively. Disadvantages are respondents will not be able to express their views, data may take a long time to analyze, there could be the possibility of the same respondent answering the same questionnaire and some public members will not be willing to answer the questionnaire. To reduce these issues the questionnaire will have an incentive to attract people to carry out the questionnaire, for example by being put in to a prize draw for an IPod Nano. Also the questionnaire will ask closed questions, with answers given for respondents to choose from. For example; how often do you see PCSOs on patrol- Most of the time, some of the time, do not see them at all? This will allow for easier analysis of answers and it will be easier to categorize questions onto a graph. The questionnaire will consist of a range of questions that are related to PCSOs, with the main aim to address aim three. However, before the questionnaire could be conducted, the study hit fatal problems which terminated the possibility of carrying out the questionnaires. The problem was time and no funding. No funding made it impossible to hire people to carry out the questionnaires and resulted to lack of time for it to carry out research across the nation. This therefore meant that there would not be any research to be analyzed. Nonetheless this report will address this issue by looking at what studies have been done; it will bring together these studies to answer aim three. It will use the following studies that where done by Cooper et al (2007), Crawford et al (2004) and Hiley (2005). Cooper et al (2007) The methods used by Cooper et al (2007) were both quantitative and qualitative to gain research. With the aim; first to provide a national profile on PCSOs in terms of their activities, deployment, designated powers and demographics. The second was to provide indications of the impact PCSOs have on the public, in terms of their levels of reassurance, their perceptions and an understanding of their roles. The final aim was to provide indications of impact PCSOs on low level crime/disorder, incidents and anti social behavior (ASB) The variety of data collected provided a stronger reliability around their findings as the data collected was of a large capacity. Data on a national level was collected from a survey of forces and a survey of PCSOs, by means of questionnaires. This is very reliable source of research as it done national and can be used as a national piece of evidence. On a local level three forces where chosen as case studies and from each force four areas were selected for a detailed study. Two of these areas were control areas where PCSOs had not been deployed, and the other two areas were where PCSOs had been deployed for some time. Across the four forces interviews were conducted in police forces to collect data on a wide range of issues including, PCSOs deployment, supervision, training, induction and integration. The interviews were conducted upon the PCSOs deployed two areas on similar questions. Also data was collected from the control areas after PCSOs were deployed on their impact on crime levels for a two week period. This is reliable as the range of evidence collected is immense, due to the interviews carried out over four different forces. Controls were used, for the data to be compared with, as this is very important. Crawford et al (2004) Crawford et al (2004) investigated if PCSOs and other members of the extended police family on how they can have impact on recorded crime. This study was funded by University of Leeds Centre for Criminal Justice Studies. Crawford et al compared trends in crime levels in the cities of Leeds and Bradford, also conducting a study which used a twin site public opinion survey to assess the impact of PCSOs on the public (2004). Hiley (2005) Hiley (2005) investigated if the public in the Gedling Borough of Nottingham felt PCSOs were effective. Hiley (2005) conducted its research by interviewing five hundred and one respondents. Sample size was taken at random, and respondents that declined were replaced. In analyzing these studies the findings of the report aims to answer aim three of the report to be conducted, all three studies are conducted in different regions and collated together can become a reliable source of data. Though it must be noted that each study was carried out in different years may hinder its reliability and validity. Nevertheless these studies are still relevant as they give a picture of the effectiveness of PCSOs at that time period. Another advantage of using these case studies is that information is readily available and modern, so it may still reflect the effectiveness of PCSOs to date. Chapter 1 Ã ¬The Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) and their Functionality Introduction History of the Police Community Support Officers Roles of Police Community Support Officers Powers of Police Community Support Officers Summary Introduction This chapter will present an overview of the history, role and powers of the Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs). The history section will look at how and why PCSOs were developed, followed by the explanation of the role and aims of the PCSOs. This chapter finishes of with providing knowledge around the powers of the PCSOs and how they have developed over time. History of Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) It is essential for the reader to become aware of the history behind the development of the PCSOs as it explains how and why this type of service originated. Initially, police officers out on patrol had many different competing priorities and limited time to provide a swift response to urgent calls. The effect of this limitation of time resulted in many patrols becoming vehicle based and patrol tasks being interrupted by urgent incidents, custody requirements, paperwork, etc. The Neighbourhood Policing Programme 2007, states that there were Ã¢â¬Ëgaps in policing that bought about a combination of increasing demand and additional requirements on officers and forcesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Neighbourhood policing programme 2007). It can be fair to say, that at this point in time the relationship between the police force and the local community may not have been as strong as expected because the prioritisation of tasks left meant some other tasks would not be complete. The National Evaluation of community support officers found that the public perception confirmed the need of extra support for officers, Ã¢â¬Ëthere are too many calls on police officers time and long term disorder/behaviour issues are not dealt with effectivelyÃ¢â¬â¢(Home Office 2006). Therefore, it had become apparent that the police force clearly required more support in terms of man-power to tackle this time constraint. The Police Reform Act in 2002 (PRA) revolutionized policing; chief officers across the UK now had PCSOs at their disposal to support police activities (Rogers and Lewis 2007: 125). By 2008 the government anticipated the number of PCSOs would grow substantially from 6,000 to 24,000. (Newburn 2008:156). However, at the end of April 2007, the figures showed that there were 16,000 PCSOs employed (Home Office 2007:33). In September 2002, pilot schemes across six forces had allowed PCSOs to take to the streets, primarily to provide high visibility patrols and become the eyes and ears of the police (Greater Manchester Police 2009). PCSOs as part of the wider police family had created a significant impact by focusing upon the needs of the local community; engaging with the public and providing reassurance with their uniformed presence. The scheme was hailed a success, later became nationalised across England and Wales as well as in the British Transport Police (Greater Manchester Police 2009). With this recognition they are now an integral part of Neighbourhood Policing and can contribute towards effective policing. Ã¢â¬ËEffective Neighbourhood policing goes a long way to meeting the needs of communities. The role of the PCSO is a vital one as they are very much the visible accessible presence of neighbourhood policingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Neighbourhood policing programme 2007). Roles of Police Community Support Officers The aim of PCSOs as uniformed staff; was to provide support to the work of police officers and work within the local community. Their objective was to assist police in areas which may require a certain level of police presence. In doing so, they may not necessarily have the expertise of trained police officers, but were able to facilitate by freeing up the time police officers spent on tackling low-level crime and routine tasks. In 2005, the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) expressed the roles of the PCSO as follows:- Ã¢â¬Å"The policing of neighbourhoods, primarily through high visible patrol with the purpose of reassuring the public, increases orderliness in public places and being accessible to communities and partner agencies working at local level. The emphasis of this role, and the powers required to fulfill it, will vary from neighbourhood to neighbourhood and force to forceÃ¢â¬ (ACPO 2005). From this it is evident that the main priority was to provide high visibility patrols, dealing with public queries and restoring order within the local community. The West Midlands Police Force confer with these aims and outline the PCSO objectives as follows; to primarily provide high visibility patrols, secondly help reduce the fear of crime, thirdly participate in the police initiative of tackling anti-social behaviour (ASB), fourthly provide support and assistance at public events and finally support the police officers in building and maintaining community relations (West Midlands police 2007). Ideally as long as PCSOs acted in these key roles as stated by ACPO and the West Midlands Police Force, then they would become successful and effective. One can only become effective if the roles given to them are completed and carried out at high standards. Ã¢â¬ËEffectiveness is the ability to achieve stated goals or objectivesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Environmental Protection Agency 2007). Arguably, it can be difficult to measure effectiveness as there can be limitations which influence the success rate of a task. For example, availability of Ã¢â¬ËresourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ and in many cases Ã¢â¬ËtimeÃ¢â¬â¢ is a crucial element, and may become a limiting factor. On the 17th July 2008, the Home Office issued a report regarding the activities undertaken by the PCSO. The report reviewed findings from a study on PSCO activity based on costing data in 2006/7. The results were indicative and notably equated PCSO activity with that defined by the guidance of ACPO (2005). Visible patrols were the most frequent activity carried out by PCSOs in 42 of 43 police forces. This report also suggested that not all PCSOs across forces spent time or much time upon the remaining listed objectives, which may possibly be an outcome of limiting factors such as time. In some tasks the actual Ã¢â¬Ëtime spentÃ¢â¬â¢ may have superseded the Ã¢â¬Ëexpected timeÃ¢â¬â¢. To conclude, this report suggests that PCSOs were also carrying out extra roles not mentioned by ACPO. The summary of this report is attached in Appendix A. Retrospectively, it must be made clear to the reader that PCSOs are not sworn police officers as such, neither are they a replacement. They are a branch of modern day policing whose purpose is to provide that needed extra support to police officers. This can only mean that the powers allocated to PCSOs are limited to their purpose of serving the local community. Powers of Police Community Support Officers The functionality and effectiveness of PCSOs can be maintained with allocation of certain Ã¢â¬ËpowersÃ¢â¬â¢. This section will debate the powers given to PCSOs and discuss why these have evolved over the years. Initially, as outlined by PRA 2002, Chief Officers of each of the police force regions had the choice of selecting appropriate powers to implement their individual force initiatives alongside meeting the needs of the local community. Ã¢â¬â¢Section 38 of the PRA enables a Chief Officer to designate an individual employed by the police authority but under his/her authority discretion and control as a PCSO and confer upon them any powers listed in Part 1 of Schedule 4 to the PRAÃ¢â¬â¢ (Clayden, 2006:40) This suggested that there was no standardization or common ground for powers allocated to PCSOs across the United Kingdom (U.K). PCSOs in different forces would have had different powers to deal with certain incidents. Therefore, this meant PCSOs in different forces, would have powers in dealing with certain incidents whereas others would lack the powers to deal with those incidents. For example, in 2006 the Chief Constable of Surrey police allocated different powers to PCSOs in different areas. The PCSOs in the area of Guildford Borough had the power to issue a Fixed Penalty notice (FPN) for littering. Where as the PCSOs in the area of Ash Wharf where given a different power, the power to issue a FPN for Graffiti and Fly posting (Surrey Police, 2006). It must be noted that these different powers may only help PCSOs tackle targeted crime for each area specifically. On the other hand this can also become a problem for PCSOs, since there is a difference in the selection of powers for PCSOs in areas and regions. If a person was to commit a graffiti offence in the area of Guildford Borough then the PCSOs located there would have no power to issue FPN for this crime, since the PCSOs in that area have not been allocated that power. Furthermore if someone was littering in the area of Ash Wharf, then the PCSOs located in this area do not have the power to issue a FPN for littering. Additionally, the difference in selection of powers can lead to confusion and debate regarding the role of the PCSO, which in turn reflects their effectiveness. The BBC news website on the 6th of December 2005 read Ã¢â¬ËPolice Community Support Officers, hailed as future of policing in London, are at the centre of a row about their roleÃ¢â¬â¢ (BBC News, 2005) A standard set of powers would help to understand what PCSOs can and can not do, which in turn may help clarify their roles to the local community to whom they serve. In addition, it is crucial that the public becomes clear of the capabilities and powers of a PCSO, so that they are not overestimated. Overestimating the PCSOs powers and abilities can have devastating results, as it was in the heartbreaking case of Jordon Lyon on May the 3rd 2007 in Wigan (BBC News, 2007). This case saw two PCSOs being branded in the media for being incapable to save or attempt to save a drowning child in the pond, simply because they did not have water rescue training. The Times Newspaper on September 2007 headlined, Ã¢â¬Å"Failure to save drowning boy prompts calls to scrap Ã¢â¬ËcommunityÃ¢â¬â¢ policeÃ¢â¬ (Times online, 2007) Though, unlike the PCSOs in Wigan, in Watford on 22nd October 2007 two PCSOs saved the life of a drowning woman in a canal in Watford (Watford Observer 2007). Clearly these two similar incidents raise confusion over the power of the PCSOs. Moreover these incidents could confuse people around the PCSOs capabilities, do they have water rescue training or not, what can they do? What can they not do? In one case the PCSO has the power and the capabilities to save a persons life preventing them from drowning and in another case they seem incapable and powerless in saving someone from drowning. PCSOs powers at this stage are not clear and seem to be questionable, which need to be dealt with. Five years on from their introduction and in response to the confusion over the role of PCSOs: from 1st of December 2007 PCSOs were set 20 standard powers and an additional 22 powers accessible to them at the discretion of the chief constable(Smith 2008:17). A full list of the standard and discretionary powers is set out in Appendix B; the list was obtained from the Home Office website (Home Office 2007). The enactment of these standardised powers will mean a more consistent role for PCSOs nationwide. It provides PCSOs with the tools to deal with low-level disorder and anti-social behaviour and to contribute effectively to local policing. However, there are still 22 powers that can be allocated by the Chief Constable which can cause a lack of consistency in PCSOs powers within different communities. Nonetheless, it is apparent from Louise CaseyÃ¢â¬â¢
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Three stages could be involved in this cycle of continuous improvement, which tend to build on each others over time. These are Compliance: Many enterprises will decide to adopt the TUB approach in order to simply comply with the buyers' expectations or local regulations, with aim of retaining their Ã¢â¬Å"license to operateÃ¢â¬ in the face of buyers' demands or government inspections.Efficiency: With time or sometimes in parallel with the pressures to comply enterprises will come under pressure to improve performance and they will use this pressure, handled through a TUB approach, as a driver for cost savings, productivity improvements and quality enhancements focusing on process efficiency and resource utilization. This option offers a mix of cost saving and productivity improvements.Differentiation: Later on the enterprises involved for sometime In the TUB process thought of using the TUB approach strategically, aiming at strengthening their competitive position by moving them from being Ã¢â¬Å"price takersÃ¢â¬ to being Ã¢â¬Å"price settersÃ¢â¬ Criteria for selection of industries: The enterprises are Seems (Small and Medium scale Enterprises) Significant direct or indirect exporter The existence of at least some management capacity and the availability of an information system Significant level of Interests shown by person within the enterprise with a track record of leadership or Innovation and the authority(CEO/ Chairman/Plant manager) to sustain an Initiative such as TUB In the face of competing pressures A clear potential for Improvement Likelihood of effect arising from changes at the selected enterprise Basic stages of any sustained TUB process: The basic stages of any sustained TUB process Includes Enrolment:Being prepared for to Ã¢â¬Å"sign upÃ¢â¬ for the program In the beginning Application: Being prepared to commit company's resources especially staff time to Investigating company's performance Implementation: Being prepared to Invest resources In Implementing options arising from the TUB process Maintenance: Being prepared to sustain over the long term, the Minimal gains made as a result of Implementing Improved options CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT By businesswoman Later on the enterprises involved for sometime in the TUB process thought of information system Significant level of interests shown by person within the enterprise with a track record of leadership or innovation and the authority(CEO/ Chairman/Plant manager) to sustain an initiative such as TUB in the face of competing pressures A clear potential for improvement The basic stages of any sustained TUB process includes Enrolment: Being prepared for to Ã¢â¬Å"sign upÃ¢â¬ for the program in the beginning Application: investigating company's performance Implementation: Being prepared to invest resources in implementing options arising from the TUB Being prepared to sustain over the long term, the initial gains made as a result of implementing improved options
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The nave of Amines Cathedral The Amines cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, its stone-vaulted nave reaching an internal height of 42. 30 meters (138. Oft). The lower nave completed by the sass's under the direction of Robert De Leaches. Thomas De Cormorant completed the upper nave in the sass's and later the radiating chapels. The plan of Amines Cathedral is like that of the other Classical cathedrals at Chartres and Reams, as well as the Notre-Dame in Paris: a three-aisled nave with a twin-towered west facade, a three-aisled transept, a five-aisled choir, an ambulatory, and radiating happens.The whole design reflects the builders' confident use of the complete High Gothic structural vocabulary: the rectangular-bay system, the four-part rib vault, and a buttressing system that permitted almost complete dissolution of heavy masses and thick weight-bearing walls. At Amines, the concept of a self-sustaining skeletal architecture reached full maturity. The remaining st retches of wall seem to serve no purpose other than to provide a weather screen for the interior. Amines Cathedral is one of the most impressive examples of the French Gothic obsession with instructing ever taller churches.Using their new skeletal frames of stone, French builders attempted goals almost beyond limit, pushing to new heights with increasingly slender supports. The tense, strong lines of the Amines vault ribs converge at the colonnades and speed down the shell-like walls to the compound piers. The nave of Santa Crock Santa Crock is the largest Franciscan church in Florence. The construction started in 1295 by architect Arnold did Cambial and completed in 1442. The church is simple basilica style with a nave and two isles.The nave is mom wide and wooden ceiling is the succession of early Christian architecture. Basically the building is modified- Gothic style which has come from Sectarian church and has bring into Tuscany. The imposing interior has a nave and two side ai sles separated by slender octagonal piers from which spring spacious pointed arches with a double molding. The nave is wide and well-lit, with massive widely-spaced piers supporting pointed arches. The ancient choir placed in the central nave of the church was demolished. The Architecture of Cathedrals and Great Churches By mastoid
Friday, November 8, 2019
Max Planck Formulates Quantum Theory In 1900, German theoretical physicist Max Planck revolutionized the field of physics by discovering that energy does not flow evenly but is instead released in discrete packets. Planck created an equation to predict this phenomenon, and his discovery ended the primacy of whatÃ many people now call classical physics in favor of the study of quantum physics. The Problem Despite feeling that all was already known in the field of physics, there was still one problem that had plagued physicists for decades: They could not understand the surprising results they continued to get from heating surfaces that absorb all frequencies of light that hit them, otherwise known as black bodies. Try as they might, scientists could not explain the results using classical physics. The Solution Max Planck was born in Kiel, Germany, on April 23, 1858, and was considering becoming a professional pianist before a teacher turned his attention to science. Planck went on to receive degrees from the University of Berlin and the University of Munich. After spending four years as an associate professor of theoretical physics at Kiel University, Planck moved to the University of Berlin, where he became a full professor in 1892. Plancks passion was thermodynamics. While researching black-body radiation, he too kept running into the same problem as other scientists. Classical physics could not explain the results he was finding. In 1900, 42-year-oldÃ Planck discovered an equation that explained the results of these tests: ENhf, with Eenergy, Ninteger, hconstant, ffrequency. In determining this equation, Planck came up with the constant (h), which is now known as Plancks constant. TheÃ amazing part of Plancks discovery was that energy, which appears to be emitted in wavelengths, is actually discharged in small packets he called quanta. This new theory of energy revolutionized physics and opened the way for Albert Einsteins theory of relativity. Life After Discovery At first, the magnitude of Plancks discovery was not fully understood. It wasnt until Einstein and others used quantum theory for even further advancements in physics that the revolutionary nature of his discovery was realized. By 1918, the scientific community was well aware of theÃ importance of Plancks work and awarded himÃ the Nobel Prize in Physics. He continued to conduct research and contribute further to the advancement of physics, but nothing compared to his 1900 findings. Tragedy in His Personal Life While he achieved much in his professional life, Plancks personal life was marked by tragedy. His first wife died in 1909, his oldest son, Karl, duringÃ World War I. Twin girls,Ã Margarete and Emma, both later died in childbirth. And his youngest son, Erwin, was implicated in the failedÃ July Plot to kill Hitler and was hanged. In 1911, Planck did remarry and had one son, Hermann. Planck decided to remain in Germany during World War II. Using his clout, the physicistÃ tried to stand up for Jewish scientists, but with little success. In protest, Planck resigned as president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1937. In 1944, a bomb dropped during an Allied air raid hit his house, destroying many of his possessions, including all his scientific notebooks.Ã Max Planck died on October 4, 1947, at the age of 89.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The impact of media on society Introduction Media is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s power and force that can not be undermined. Media has a remarkable control in almost every aspect of our lives; in politics, social and cultural or economic welfares. Perhaps the best analysis of the impact that media has played in the society is through first acknowledging its role in information flow and circulation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The impact of media on society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is would be unjust to overlook the importance of information to the society. Information is the significant to the society in the sense that, all that happens in the society must be channeled and communicated among the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s habitats. Without media, the habitats or else the population will be left clueless on what is happening or what is ought to happen. From another perspective, the society benefits from the media in a number of ways and as well it derives a lot of misfortunes from the society. However, regardless of the impact that is made by media on the society, the media remains to be one of the strongest forces that influence the pillars of the society. This essay paper highlights the impacts that media has continued to assert on the society either in a positive or in a negative manner. Role of media in the society The most common role that media has played in the society has been; to inform people, to educate people and sometimes to offer leisure or entertainment. The role of media in the society is stretched back in the ancient traditions when, there were approaches on which media role in the society was perceived. Some of these approaches included a positive approach, critical approach, production approach, technological approach, information approach and finally a post colonial approach. A positivist approach assumed that mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the society was to achieve predetermined objectives of the society, usu ally from a beneficial perspective. The critical approach assumes that media is pertinent can be used in struggle for power and other issues in the society that were preceded by a spark of a new or old ideology. The production approach is that media plays a greater role in society by providing a new experience of reality to the masses by providing an avenue of new perceptions and visions. The information approach assumes that the key role of media in the society is to provide information channels for the benefit of the society (Fourie178). Impact of media on society With the above roles being achieved in one of the most remarkable means over centuries, media has some solid impacts that have been imprinted on the society. Some of these impacts and effects are to remain for ever as long as media existence will remain while others require control and monitoring due to their negative effects on the society. The best approach to look at this is by first describing the positive impacts th at media has had on the society (Fourie 25).Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The development of media and advancement of mass media is such positive impact that media has accomplished in recent times. It has been proven that mass communication has influenced social foundation and governments to means that only can be termed pro-social (Preiss 485). An example of such can be use of mass media in campaigns to eradicate HIV and AIDS in the society. Mass communication through media avenues such as the internet, television and radio has seen great co-operation of government, government agencies, non-government organizations, private corporations and the public in what is seen as key society players in mutual efforts towards constructing better society. In this context, media has contributed to awareness, education of the society and better governance of the society. W ere it not for media, the worlds most historical moments would probably be forgotten today especially in the manner they reshape our contemporary society in matters regarding politics, economics and culture (Fourie 58). However, media has had its shortcomings that have negative influence on the society. These negatives if not counterchecked or controlled will continue to ruin the values and morals of a society that once treasured morality and value of information. These negative impacts include: media has contributed to immense exposure of violence and antisocial acts from media program that are aimed at entertaining the public. Media roles in the society have been reversed by merely assuming a role of society visibility thus controlling the society rather than being controlled by society. Media has continued to use biased tactics to attract society attention and thus having a negative impact on the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture due to stereotyping of other cultures. Media has continued to target vulnerable groups in the society such as children and youths be exposing them to pornographic materials that has sexual immorality consequence on the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s young generations. It is through such shortcomings that the cognitive behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢s which shape the moral fiber of the society gets threatened by media (Berger 106). However, regardless of the impacts of the media on the society, the future of the media will evolve with time and its role in the society will unlikely fade.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The impact of media on society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Berger, Arthur. Media and society: a critical perspective. Maryland: Rowman Littlefield. 2007 Fourie, Pieter. Media studies: media history, media and society. Cape Town: Juta and company ltd. 2008 Preiss, Raymond. Mass media effects research: advances through meta-analysis. New York: Routledge. 2007
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Compare and Contract 2 Documentaries - Movie Review Example Just like the way love takes on connotation in distinction to unresponsiveness or disgust, and civilization takes on the meaning in distinction to barbarism or pandemonium, documentary assumes meaning quite the reverse to creative writing film or investigational and ultramodern film. People would afterwards merely have an imitation or duplicate of a thing that already subsisted. However, a documentary is never a duplicate of realism but a representation of the planet people presently occupy. It symbolizes a particular perspective of the planet; something people might never have come across prior to even if the characteristics of the planet that is symbolized is recognizable to the world's inhabitants. A reproduction is judged through its loyalty to the original its capability to resemble, act like, and provide the same principles as the original. People review a representation further by the temperament of the delight it provides, the worth of the insight or information it offers, an d the eminence of the course or temperament, tone or viewpoint it instills. Queries arise from a representation as opposed to that of a reproduction. Are documentaries an imitation of realism and are the tribulations they portray remotely less sensitive? If a Tree Falls is a tale of the Earth Liberation Front, (ELF), an astonishing documentary by the dazzling youthful directors Sam Cullman and Marshall Curry. This documentary searches the prosecution of associates of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) for a succession of expensive flammable fires. The trailers and a number of imagery of the film makes a person get disturbed that it is going to be a one-sided delineation of ecological heroes going to limits. This documentary was certainly nothing of the sort. The knowledge of short listing of the film in the documentary section of the Academy Prizing made many people. People hope that the film makes the final selection, even though the antagonism, as always, is hard. It would be an ele ction for fearless examination of intricacy in a planet drawn to over abridged portrayals of events and tribulations, champions and villains. If one gets an opportunity to watch it, he or she is urged to do so. Presently, the film is watchable in the Ã¢â¬Ëinstant or quick playÃ¢â¬â¢ approach on Netflix. Those residing in New York have an opportunity to watch the documentary at the IFC Center depicted as a component of the Stranger than Fiction. Mutually, the two directors and makers of the film will be present. The film is summed up and scrutinized nicely in an enlightening feature tale that occurred in The Times previously and currently this year (Crimes against Property, as Protests, C5). Fairly than appraising the details, one is urged to go through it. At its nucleus, the film discovers the ancestry of one environmentalistÃ¢â¬â¢s decree-violating passion, and of the firmness of the centralized antiterrorism rules that emanated out of the Oklahoma City terror campaign in th e year 1995 and then the horrific attacks of September 11 in the year 2001. It is viciously neutral, despite offering a cherished, above-the-shoulder vision of the key acknowledged arsonist, the mild-behavioral Daniel McGowan, as he trails his dispute against a long prison sentence. This type of impartiality is highly dissimilar than the Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable and balancedÃ¢â¬ Fox-style TV meme. Inside the Times commentary, Curry articulated this concerning the balance: the
Friday, November 1, 2019
UK Constitutional Law (United Kingdom) - Assignment Example The legislations are however not without issues, as demonstrated in the Jackson v Attorney General  case regarding the legality of the application of Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 to pass the Hunting Act, making it illegal to hunt wild animals using dogs, except in very limited circumstances. 6The case was heard by a Divisional court and later passed on the court of appeal. The court of appeal decision was that constitutional changes could not be passed under the parliament act of 1911. 2The legal issues raised in this case is that any legislation done under the parliament Act of 1911 was not primary, but a subordinate one. The legislative power wielded by the Act was not limited, and thus was open to statutory interpretation. Upon reaching the decision, the judges raised the issue that the Act did not authorize the House of Commons to change or remove any conditions on which the law-making power is based. 6 The judges observed that the 1911 Act was wide to authorize some am endments of the commons law making power, contrary to the 1949 Act, which was observed to be substantial and significant. 6The discussion by the judges was that it was highly unlikely that the House of Commons could contemplate to use the Act to enact a legislation that the House of Lords had not consented to or to abolish the House of Lords completely. 2 If however, the House of Commons had such intentions, then it would be seen as contrary to the intentions of the parliament, when it was enacting such legislations. This gives the opinion that the 1911 act was much ambiguous, and require situational interpretation for its effective applicability. The roots of the two legislations can be traced back to the Budgeting done in the year 1909, which proposed the taxation of lands, with the ideas that a land tax should be introduced to raise budget money. The conservatives, who were mainly the large landowners opposed the proposal and saw its downfall through the House of Lords where they wielded immense power. Consequently, there was a perceived need to limit the powers of the House of Lords, through granting the House of Commons more power, most significantly the power to pass legislations without seeking the approval of the House of Lords. 1The agenda of the refused budget proposal become the bottom-line of the 1910 elections, where the liberals sought to limit the powers of the House of the Lords, when they got back to parliament t after the elections. This was eventually to happen, a milestone that saw the power of the House of Lords, to control and scrutinize all legislations and give their approval before any legislation was passed to a law curtailed. The provisions of Parliament Acts of 1911 underlined the fact that the House of Lords no longer had powers to veto any legislation emanating from the House of Commons. The only exception granted was on the issue of extending the maximum term of the parliament from to over five years. 2 The effect of this was to scrap off the powers of the House of Lords, leaving them with only an authority to delay bills but not to reject
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Project of Activity for Bathing a Patient - Coursework Example The type of bath recommended for a patient also puts into perspective aspects such as the age of the patient and the knowledge of the patient on how to use the bathroom. The paper outlines a planning activity for bathing a patient who is an old woman and who is independent and does not need a hoist to move around or for support. The primary objective for the bathing activity is to ensure that the patient remains clean, fresh, cool and that there is improved blood circulation. Since the patient is independent and can move around, bed bath will not be necessary. In consideration of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s age, a seated shower bath under supervision will be preferable. The objective of the activity will also be aimed at ensuring that the patient is not exposed to any form of risk, the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy is observed and that confidentiality is maintained (Jamieson, 2002, p.27). The supervision will be conducted for a period of 2 weeks until there is enough certainty that the patient can proceed to bathe on their own without any further supervision. According to Leino-Kilpi (2005, p.62), bathing for the patient improves their self-esteem and contributes to the well-being of the patient during care. However, care should be taken when during such an activity because there might be some social and cultural barriers that might hinder success. For instance, female patients should always be supervised by female nurses. Studies have shown that in the instance where male nurses supervise female patients of female nurses supervise male patients, there might be a risk of arousal that might cause discomfort and embarrassment either to the nurse or to the patient (Wolgin, 2005, p.82).Ã
Monday, October 28, 2019
Service Area Analysis for Beaumont Essay Beaumont Health System is a three-hospital regional health system with more than 1,725 beds with additional facilities that include nursing homes, home healthcare agency, research institute, primary and specialty care clinics, rehabilitation, cardiology, and cancer centers. offers a wide-range of services and programs to our adult and pediatric patients which includes Ninety-one medical and surgical specialties are represented on the Beaumont medical staff of more than 3,700 Michigan physicians with numerous community based medical centers throughout Detroit, Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties. The service area for Beaumont Hospital is Oakland County which consists of cities, villages, and townships with a population of 1,202,362 people. Approximately 30% of Oakland Countys 483,698 households have children aged 18 years old or younger. Beaumont is the exclusive clinical teaching site for the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine. The system draws on a rich history of pioneering medical research to serve the health needs of southeastern Michigan and advance healing techniques nationwide. Education Level and Income Level The level of education of Oakland County as become a more educated county. 17.6 percent of the Oakland population in the year 2010 is a graduate of a professional degree. 24.6 percentage of people in Oakland county have a Bachelors Degree. 7.4 percent have an associates degree, and 21.3 percent have had some college but have no degree. Only 7.8 percent did not graduate high school. Which this number had decreased by 3 percent. While the number of people who have graduated with a professional degree or a bachelors degree have increased from 2000- 2010 by 4 percent. This census is from the population of people 25 and up. The median income for a household in the county was $61,907, and the median income for a family was $75,540 (these figures had risen to $62,308 and $79,589 respectively as of a 2009 estimate). Males had a median income of $55,833 versus $35,890 for females. The per capita income for the county was $32,534. About 3.80% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.50% of those under age 18 and 6.50% of those age 65 or over. In the year 2000 the census for households with seniors was 96,585 in the year 2010 census the number of households with seniors was 116,768. that is a percentage change of 20.9 percent. The number of households with seniors who live alone age 65 and up in 2000 was 39,910, and in 2010 the number of households 65 and older living alone is 47,290 which is a percentage change of 18.5 percent. Those two categories are the largest changing over the 10 year span out of all other age groups. To be more specific of age and the change of population from the year 2000 census through the 2010 census. According to the SEMCOG projections for the year 2040 the majority increase in population is almost strictly people the age 65 and up. Disadvantages for Beaumont: Competition from urgent care centers. Faster wait times than the hospitals along with less costly medical bills Recruitment, continued training, and retention of talented healthcare professionals.it will be important to always make sure their employees are happy and taken care of because it is easier for certain professionals to move on to somewhere else Advantages for Beaumont: They are well known and trusted throughout the community offering a variety of services for all age groups. They keep up on technology, new information, new techniques in the health field to help give better quality of care. Possible merger with Henry Ford for financial stability during the healthcare reform Top Competitors for Beaumont Health System Competitors | Detroit Medical Center | Henry Ford Health System | University of Michigan Health System | Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital St. Joseph Hospital Crittenton Hospital Summary A majority of the people in Oakland County have a median age of 40.2 but according to SEMCOG this median should increase due to the increased population of people 65 and up. The people are primarily educated therefore capable of making good sensible quality decisions. The Target market would be a population of 65 and older.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Some people only get to dream about what life might be like if they had accomplished their life goals. Some people dream about what it might not be like. Steven was one of these more fortunate people until...Steven had to overcome more pain during his lifetime then some could imagine. He dreamed of becoming a wealthy, well known business man, with a loving family. He had no clue that it would be so hard to accomplish the few things that mattered the most to him, his dreams.Steven grew up in a family of poverty, heartbreak, and violence. Every night StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s dad would come home drunk and beat on Steven and his sister, Danielle. Sometimes Steven would hide in a closet with his sister praying that his dad wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t come home. The pain Steven suffered during these beatings were unbearable. StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it. She was afraid of her violent tempered husband. She tried to take her kids away from their father a few times, but she was threatened and beaten. There was no escape from what seemed like hell. After years of violence and abuse, StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had had it. After Danielle had just been molested by her father, she thought that their was nothing left to live for. She had pulled the trigger on herself, killing one of the few people that Steven had cared about. After this incident, Steven rebelled against everything that he believed in. He just felt like there was nothing to live for and no one he could depend on. Steven didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do his schoolwork, he ran away from home a number of times, and he even got addicted to heroin. Danielle had moved to her auntÃ¢â¬â¢s house in order to avoid getting into trouble with her father, but Steven refused to go. Then on a cold rainy night, Steven went home to see a swarm of police around his home. He later found out that his father was killed in a fight over drugs, in which Steven was the source of. It was at that moment that Steven felt the worst he has ever felt in his entire life. He felt like he was to blame for his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and his mind went blank. Without hesitation, he got his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s handgun, held to his mouth, and thought of his mother. The loving mother that he used to have, the one that was to afraid to help him, the one that was just there.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
My expectations from the team this year are to be good teammates for one another and everyone on the team. This looks like welcoming, encouraging, and helping each other during workouts, practice, and games. It doesn't mean that everyone has to be best friends, but Just that the players treat each other as our motto: Ã¢â¬Å"It's a team thingÃ¢â¬ . My expectations from the coaching staff this year are to watch and correct individual mistakes and not to let bad habits go unnoticed. I like how the coaches will focus on what we are doing and talk to us about how to fix anything.The personal attention for everyone helps us all to become better players. Skill wise, I bring to the table for this team that I am able to get a good pass to the setter, can play serve receive, and I have a Jump serve. I focus on back row because it all starts with a pass. In terms of attitude and leadership, I bring to the table for this team a positive attitude. If a teammate gets discouraged about what they' re doing, I want to encourage them to play the next ball and not worry about their mistakes.For adhering, when we are out on the court and come together in the middle to talk, I tell the girls that what we need to focus on or add motivation to finish a game. At this time, I perceive my strengths are that I am a fast learner and work at correcting my mistakes after instruction. I feel that my weaknesses are that I haven't learned all of the plays. For example, I'm most comfortable with hitting a 4 as an outside, and although Vive been introduced to other hits I'm not as familiar with them.I see my ole on the team this year as an all-around volleyball player. My role is to be a more efficient hitter/blocker, play defense, and go after every ball as hard as I can. I am to keep the ball in play no matter what. My individual short term goal for the next week at practice is to work on my hitting. I need to get more power and load up on my step-close so I can Jump higher. I also need to ti me my approach better to the ball (depending on its tempo) because at practice I was either too early or too late.My worth term goal for our team for the next week at practice is to talk more on the court, because it was pretty much silent last time. We only really talked after coach pointed it out. And even then, we didn't keep it up. Also, to call for the ball as loud as we can when hitting so the setter can hear us. A lot of confusion can be avoided this way. My individual long term goal for this season is to be able to become a better-rounded volleyball player. I want to improve on my hitting?I am off on my timing and don't get low on my step-close to Jump higher.Also, I want to be more accurate on hitting certain areas on the court. I want to be able to set and pass more on target as well, especially on out of system. My long term goal for our team this season is to be a team that other schools don't want to play because of both our consistency on defense and offense. I want ou r team to dig up balls that has the other side wondering how we were able to manage to get the ball up and hitting the ball so hard that the other players are hesitant to go after it. Volleyball Expectations
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Describe one idea worth learning about in the text. Explain why it was worth learning about. John MaddenÃ¢â¬â¢s Shakespeare in love is a Ã¢â¬Ëromantic comedyÃ¢â¬â¢ set in sixteenth century England. Through its two unfortunate protagonists, Will Shakespeare Ã¢â¬Ëa lowly playerÃ¢â¬â¢ with writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block and wealthy Viola De Lesseps who dreams of Ã¢â¬Ëlove as there has never been in a play,Ã¢â¬â¢ it explores the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëthe truth and nature of loveÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Elizabethan era.Madden portrays the harsh realities of the time through filmatic techniques such as dialogue, motifs and costuming to constantly remind the viewer throughout the film that the romance that is shared by Will and Viola cannot last in sixteenth century England. This is worth leaning about because as a 21st century viewer I become more able to appreciate the struggle faced by the two protagonists, especially Viola as a woman, in the name of love.Madden makes it clear to the viewer from th e beginning of the film Shakespeare in Love, that the truth of love in sixteenth century England which is based on the idea of marriage as a method of obtaining social or financial gain divides the two protagonists who are separated by the class system. Madden enhances this key idea through the use of dialogue in Will and ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s conversations. Viola is quicker to come to terms with the inevitable idea that their love is Ã¢â¬Ëtoo flattering sweet to be substantial. The two are living in a brief Ã¢â¬ËdreamÃ¢â¬â¢, which can only last until ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Wessex. Ã¢â¬Å"Master Will, poet dearest to my heart, I beseech you, banish me from yours Ã¢â¬âI am to marry Lord Wessex-a daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s duty. Ã¢â¬ However Will and Viola continue to pursue their risky love, getting caught up in the romance and Will boasts to Viola Ã¢â¬Å"for one kiss, I would defy a thousand Wessexes! Ã¢â¬ As a twenty-first century teenager, the concept of a class system preventi ng two people who love each other from being together was new to me.However I admired and appreciated the two protagonists for going against the rules of society and seeing each other in secret trying to convince themselves that Ã¢â¬Å"love knows nothing of rank or riverbank. Ã¢â¬ Throughout the film we are reminded through the various recurring motifs, that Will and ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s love is one that will not last the expectations and realities of Elizabethan England. The river Thames is a constant setting focus in the film, being the large body of water that not only divides Will and Viola, but The Rose Theatre and The Curtain Theatre.The Thames is spoken of and shown in large establishing wide shots throughout the film. This helps to remind the viewers that Will and Viola are separated, not just by the river but the laws of society that forbid one of the lower class masses to love a wealthy upper class woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Will, as Thomas Kent my heart belongs to you but as Viola the river divides us and I must marry Wessex a week from Saturday. Ã¢â¬ Often when Will and Viola are together they are shown with the river as a background always highlighting the rift that the class system has created between them, they can never openly be together.This is also shown in the extensive use of disguise used throughout the film. Viola dresses as a boy, Ã¢â¬ËThomas Kent,Ã¢â¬â¢ so she might act in WillÃ¢â¬â¢s plays. Will also disguises himself as a woman so he can go with Viola to Greenwich. This motif is an allusion to the play that Will Shakespeare would later write, Twelfth Night, but its main purpose is to remind us that in order to be together in public they must appear as disguised forms of themselves, they cannot openly declare their love. The only occasion when Will and Viola can express their love for each other in public is in the opening performance of WillÃ¢â¬â¢s new play Romeo and Juliet.This shows the viewer that only in the theatrical world can th ese two really be together, this was interesting to see as the nature of love in sixteenth century England means that the two protagonists will fall in love but the truth of love in this era means that if they are not from the same class in society then they cannot be together. It was worth learning about the risks Will and Viola take in order to try and fit into each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s worlds as it made me invest much more emotion into their relationship.Shakespeare in Love won an academy award for its use of costuming in the film, which is reflected when we see Viola throughout the film. She is dressed immaculately in elaborate gowns with intricate beading often shown in regal colours such as red and gold which highlight her wealth and status and remind the viewer that she is too above Will for their relationship to be acceptable in Elizabethan society. This is contrasted when we first see Will, he is clearly one of the masses in his worn workman boots, plain white hirt and ink staine d hands. He relies on his words for a living. Viola and Will are from separate worlds and are only equals in the opening performance of Romeo and Juliet where Will is dressed in equal amounts of finery as Viola. This shows that only in the make-believe world of the theatre can these two be equal and accepted. The idea that they cannot marry each other even though they are in love is hard to grasp in the modern day and is the reason why many were unsatisfied by the ending of the film.However it is worth learning that Ã¢â¬Å"love can spring between a queen and the poor vagabond who plays the king. Ã¢â¬ We see Will and Viola defy Ã¢â¬Å"rank and riverbankÃ¢â¬ in an awe-inspiring way but we learn that despite their risk taking, there is not always a happy ending. An unfortunate life is particularly likely for Viola because as a woman, during this era she had fewer rights. Ã¢â¬Å"Will she breed? Ã¢â¬ ¦Yes, if she does not send her back. Ã¢â¬ Women also suffered greater conseque nces if they were to be caught acting in the theatre.This was a foreign idea for me to be learning about because as a twenty first century girl seeing actors regarded as Ã¢â¬Ëtwo-a-pennyÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Elizabethan era was strange and hugely contrasting to the celebrity status actors enjoy today. So it can be seen that the truth of love in Elizabethan England separates the two protagonists who are without control over their own relationships and life choices, a reality for the time that is hardly seen in twenty-first century New Zealand making this theme in the film almost alien to a modern teenage girl like myself.John Madden successfully portrays the constrictions of Elizabethan England and the trials Will and Viola must undergo to be together through his use of dialogue, motifs and costuming. Even the queen Ã¢â¬Ëcannot part a couple who have been joined before GodÃ¢â¬ and it is worth learning that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t always get a happy ending in life. Theme in Ã¢â¬ËShakespeare in LoveÃ¢â¬â¢ Describe one idea worth learning about in the text. Explain why it was worth learning about. John MaddenÃ¢â¬â¢s Shakespeare in love is a Ã¢â¬Ëromantic comedyÃ¢â¬â¢ set in sixteenth century England. Through its two unfortunate protagonists, Will Shakespeare Ã¢â¬Ëa lowly playerÃ¢â¬â¢ with writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block and wealthy Viola De Lesseps who dreams of Ã¢â¬Ëlove as there has never been in a play,Ã¢â¬â¢ it explores the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëthe truth and nature of loveÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Elizabethan era.Madden portrays the harsh realities of the time through filmatic techniques such as dialogue, motifs and costuming to constantly remind the viewer throughout the film that the romance that is shared by Will and Viola cannot last in sixteenth century England. This is worth leaning about because as a 21st century viewer I become more able to appreciate the struggle faced by the two protagonists, especially Viola as a woman, in the name of love.Madden makes it clear to the viewer from th e beginning of the film Shakespeare in Love, that the truth of love in sixteenth century England which is based on the idea of marriage as a method of obtaining social or financial gain divides the two protagonists who are separated by the class system. Madden enhances this key idea through the use of dialogue in Will and ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s conversations. Viola is quicker to come to terms with the inevitable idea that their love is Ã¢â¬Ëtoo flattering sweet to be substantial. The two are living in a brief Ã¢â¬ËdreamÃ¢â¬â¢, which can only last until ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Wessex. Ã¢â¬Å"Master Will, poet dearest to my heart, I beseech you, banish me from yours Ã¢â¬âI am to marry Lord Wessex-a daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s duty. Ã¢â¬ However Will and Viola continue to pursue their risky love, getting caught up in the romance and Will boasts to Viola Ã¢â¬Å"for one kiss, I would defy a thousand Wessexes! Ã¢â¬ As a twenty-first century teenager, the concept of a class system preventi ng two people who love each other from being together was new to me.However I admired and appreciated the two protagonists for going against the rules of society and seeing each other in secret trying to convince themselves that Ã¢â¬Å"love knows nothing of rank or riverbank. Ã¢â¬ Throughout the film we are reminded through the various recurring motifs, that Will and ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s love is one that will not last the expectations and realities of Elizabethan England. The river Thames is a constant setting focus in the film, being the large body of water that not only divides Will and Viola, but The Rose Theatre and The Curtain Theatre.The Thames is spoken of and shown in large establishing wide shots throughout the film. This helps to remind the viewers that Will and Viola are separated, not just by the river but the laws of society that forbid one of the lower class masses to love a wealthy upper class woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Will, as Thomas Kent my heart belongs to you but as Viola the river divides us and I must marry Wessex a week from Saturday. Ã¢â¬ Often when Will and Viola are together they are shown with the river as a background always highlighting the rift that the class system has created between them, they can never openly be together.This is also shown in the extensive use of disguise used throughout the film. Viola dresses as a boy, Ã¢â¬ËThomas Kent,Ã¢â¬â¢ so she might act in WillÃ¢â¬â¢s plays. Will also disguises himself as a woman so he can go with Viola to Greenwich. This motif is an allusion to the play that Will Shakespeare would later write, Twelfth Night, but its main purpose is to remind us that in order to be together in public they must appear as disguised forms of themselves, they cannot openly declare their love. The only occasion when Will and Viola can express their love for each other in public is in the opening performance of WillÃ¢â¬â¢s new play Romeo and Juliet.This shows the viewer that only in the theatrical world can th ese two really be together, this was interesting to see as the nature of love in sixteenth century England means that the two protagonists will fall in love but the truth of love in this era means that if they are not from the same class in society then they cannot be together. It was worth learning about the risks Will and Viola take in order to try and fit into each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s worlds as it made me invest much more emotion into their relationship.Shakespeare in Love won an academy award for its use of costuming in the film, which is reflected when we see Viola throughout the film. She is dressed immaculately in elaborate gowns with intricate beading often shown in regal colours such as red and gold which highlight her wealth and status and remind the viewer that she is too above Will for their relationship to be acceptable in Elizabethan society. This is contrasted when we first see Will, he is clearly one of the masses in his worn workman boots, plain white hirt and ink staine d hands. He relies on his words for a living. Viola and Will are from separate worlds and are only equals in the opening performance of Romeo and Juliet where Will is dressed in equal amounts of finery as Viola. This shows that only in the make-believe world of the theatre can these two be equal and accepted. The idea that they cannot marry each other even though they are in love is hard to grasp in the modern day and is the reason why many were unsatisfied by the ending of the film.However it is worth learning that Ã¢â¬Å"love can spring between a queen and the poor vagabond who plays the king. Ã¢â¬ We see Will and Viola defy Ã¢â¬Å"rank and riverbankÃ¢â¬ in an awe-inspiring way but we learn that despite their risk taking, there is not always a happy ending. An unfortunate life is particularly likely for Viola because as a woman, during this era she had fewer rights. Ã¢â¬Å"Will she breed? Ã¢â¬ ¦Yes, if she does not send her back. Ã¢â¬ Women also suffered greater conseque nces if they were to be caught acting in the theatre.This was a foreign idea for me to be learning about because as a twenty first century girl seeing actors regarded as Ã¢â¬Ëtwo-a-pennyÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Elizabethan era was strange and hugely contrasting to the celebrity status actors enjoy today. So it can be seen that the truth of love in Elizabethan England separates the two protagonists who are without control over their own relationships and life choices, a reality for the time that is hardly seen in twenty-first century New Zealand making this theme in the film almost alien to a modern teenage girl like myself.John Madden successfully portrays the constrictions of Elizabethan England and the trials Will and Viola must undergo to be together through his use of dialogue, motifs and costuming. Even the queen Ã¢â¬Ëcannot part a couple who have been joined before GodÃ¢â¬ and it is worth learning that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t always get a happy ending in life.